Annotated Bibliography on Railroad Land Grants
with a Focus on the Northern Pacific Railroad
and Its Corporate Descendants

revised February 2004

compiled by George Draffan
www.landgrant.org

Aaron, Banjamin, et al. 1977. The Railway labor act at fifty: collective bargaining in the railroad and airline industries. [Washington]: National Mediation Board, U.S. GPO, 1977.

Acohido, Byron and Terry Lawhead. 1990. A huge land purchase by Behring firm: some Eastside residents fear massive development. Seattle Times, May 31, 1990. (3800 acres in six parcels: Glacier Ridge, Grand Ridge, Lake Desire, Squak Mt., Novelty Hill).

Acohido, Byron. 1988. BN runs a lot more than just a railroad. Seattle Times/Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 21, 1988, p.B1.

Acohido, Byron. 1988. Former EPA head operating ventures in hazardous waste. Seattle Times, Jan. 18, 1988, p.D5. (Portrait of Ruckleshaus. "He counsels U.S. presidents and captains of industry... He will do what he can to usher George Bush into the Oval Office." David Ortman is quoted as saying "Hell, no one trusts him after the way he handles Asarco, putting up for a vote how many cancer deaths people wanted," but Spokane Audubon chair Morey Haggin is portrayed as being impressed with Ruckleshaus and ECOS's plans to involve local communities in decisions).

Acohido, Byron. 1988. Former linebacker tackles big deals in waste, real estate. Seattle Times, Apr 25, 1988. (David Sabey, Chempro, ECOS, Glacier Park).

Acohido, Byron. 1988. Rumbling toward a showdown: Burlington Northern, train crews trade charges as a contract fight looms just around the bend. Seattle Times/Post-Intelligencer, Feb 21, 1988, p.B1,B8.

Adams, Brock. 1978. A prospectus for change in the railroad freight industry. U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Oct. 1978. (Includes a discussion of rehabilitation costs).

Adams, Charles Francis. 1869. Railroad inflation. North American Review 109: 130-164.

Adams, Charles Francis. 1886. Railroads: their origins and problems. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1878; republished by Arno Press.

Ainsworth, D.P. and P.V. Stone. 1979. Public ownership of railroad fixed plant: a restructuring alternative. Greenwich, CT: Reebie Associates.

Alexander, Karen. 1993. Safety board to probe derailment. Seattle Times, Aug. 25, 1993, p.B4. (National Transportation Safety Board investingating derailment of BN train in Monroe, Washington because damages exceed $150,000; three of the cars contained hazardous materials; residents of the area were evacuated).

Allen, Benjamin J. 1975. The economic effects of rail abandonement on communities: a case study. Transportation Journal, Fall 1975, p.52-61.

Allen, Frederic Lewis. 1949. The great Pierpoint Morgan. New York.

Allen, Geoffrey Freeman. 1990. Railways of the twentieth century. (Overview of the world's railroads, country by country).

Allen, Geoffrey Freeman. North American railroads today. Brian Todd. 123 p.

Alliance for the Wild Rockies. Groups will sue over Swan Valley grizzly bear plan. The Networker: News from the Wild Rockies Bioregion 8(2): 11, Spring 1996. (Conservation Agreement between Plum Creek, Montana Dept. of State Lands, U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service promotes logging and roading on private, state, and federal lands in the Mission Mountains near Glacier National Park; Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund filed notice of intent to sue on behalf of Friends of the Wild Swan, Swan View Coalition, Alliance for the Wild Rockies).

Ambrose, Stephen E. Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1865-1869. Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Crazy Horse and Custer. (Photograph of Custer with Indian scouts sitting in front of tent with Northern Pacific logo).

Ames, Gregory P. 1981. Recreational use of abandoned railroad rights-of-way: a bibliography and technical resource guide for planners. CPL Bibliography No. 66. Chicago: Council of Planning Librarians. 42 p. Anderson, Eva Greenslit. 1952. Rails across the Cascades. Wenatchee, Wash., World Pub. Co. [1952?; 1977]. (J.J. Hill and the Great Northern).

Andrews, Mea. 1982. Williams wants BN to still pay for land grants. Missoulian, Sept. 12, 1982. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.27. (U.S. Rep. Pat Williams calls for 1983 hearings before the House Interior Subcommittee on Public Lands, and perhaps before before the Subcommittee on Energy and Commerce. He has asked the General Accounting Office to investigate the proposed exchange of 350 million tons of land grant coal for a similar amount of federal coal in Montana, in order to consolidate BN's holdings and open a mine; so far the BLM has approved the swap. See also DeWolf Sept. 11, 1982).

Andrist, Ralph K. The Long Death: the Last Days of the Plains Indian. (Custer and the Northern Pacific).

Ansnes, B. 1932. Federal regulation of railroad holding companies. Colum L Rev 32: 999-1016, June 1932.

Applegate, Rick. 1979. An unintended empire: a case study of rail land holdings. Pages 100-240 in: Additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System, hearings before the Subcomm. on Public Lands of the Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, 96th Congress, 1st Session on H.R. 3928, held in Washington DC on Sept. 17, 1979... and oversight on land ownership in the Beaverhead and Gallatin National Forests, hearing held in Bozeman, Montana, Oct. 4, 1979. Serial No. 96-11, Part IV.

Appleman, Roy E. September 1939. Timber empire from the public domain. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 26: 193-208. Also published in Gates, 1979.

Armbruster, Kurt. Orphan Road: The Railroad Comes to Seattle, 1853-1911. Washington State University, 1999.

Associated Press. 1988. BN "rubber room" lawsuit to resume. Spokesman Review, Dec. 6, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.14. (Timber tax expert George Landis, one of over a thousand non-union workers promised a job for life under terms of 1970 BN merger, sued BN in 1985 for breaching agreement. Suit was frozen for two years while the ICC investigated).

Associated Press. 1988. BN chalks up latest Winona round. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 13, 1988. (8th Circuit Court ruling).

Associated Press. 1988. BN discounts damage to river. Spokesman Review, April 10, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.11. (Derailment along the Columbia River causes spill of 15,000 gallons of sodium borohydride and borohydroxide into river and on ground).

Associated Press. 1988. BN has agreed to settle, union says. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 4, 1988. (Montana Rail Link dispute).

Associated Press. 1988. BN told to use same labor rules for Winona subsidiary. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 1, 1988.

Associated Press. 1988. Bond settlement to open BN land for development. Seattle Times, Jan. 22, 1988, p.C3. (1898 100- to 150-year Northern Pacific bonds settled; removes lien on BN land, oil, gas, minerals, and timber).

Associated Press. 1988. City of Salmon hopeful about gold strike. Lewiston Tribune, Nov. 30, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.49-50. (Meridian's Beartrack).

Associated Press. 1988. Disputed BN unit hits tracks today. Seattle Times, April 18, 1988. (Winona Bridge subsidiary avoids BN labor contracts).

Associated Press. 1988. Gold deposit found in Idaho. Seattle Times, Nov. 28, 1988. (Meridian's Beartrack).

Associated Press. 1988. Judge blocks smaller train crews. Seattle Times, June 10, 1988.

Associated Press. 1988. Millions of acres expected to be unlocked: settlement approved by federal judge removes turn-of-the-century liens on BN land. Spokesman Review, Jan. 21, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.9; Feb 1992, p.29-30.

Associated Press. 1988. Union says BN has agreed to job protection. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 14, 1988. (Montana Rail Link dispute).

Associated Press. 1988. Winona decision a 'setback' for BN. Seattle Times, Nov. 30, 1988. (Court decides BN can't bypass union contracts).

Associated Press. 1989. Burlington Resources plans to sell off mining operations. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 12, 1989. (Meridian Minerals, Beartrack).

Associated Press. 1989. SEC tracking other Burlington trades. Seattle Times, Aug. 4, 1989. (Ex-BN lawyer Richard Schreiber settled for insider trading; investigation continuing).

Associated Press. 1990. Burlington Environmental announces plan to go public. Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, Aug. 1, 1990, p.1. (To raise up to $105 million with seven million shares; two-thirds of revenues from handling Boeing waste; four Chempro sites on state problem list; Sabey could make $27 million, reducing his share from 46 to 15 percent).

Associated Press. 1990. Corn spill site luring grizzlies to their deaths: habit draws animals onto railroad tracks. Spokesman Review, June 25, 1990. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.14. (Three BN derailments in 1988-1989 near Essex, in prime grizzly habitat. Interagency report by US F&WS, Montana Dept. of FWP, Kootenai National Forest, and Glacier National Park).

Associated Press. 1990. Meridian Oil buys Unicon properties. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 26, 1990. (San Juan Basin (New Mexico) natural gas reserves).

Associated Press. 1990. Mismanagement charged. Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, July 13, 1990, p.1. (James Hill descendents charge Willamette Industries with mismanagement of 168,000 acres in Oregon; their attorneys include ex-San Francisco mayor Joe Alioto).

Associated Press. 1991. BN to keep Stampede Pass line. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 19, 1991.

Associated Press. 1991. El Paso Natural Gas likely to be spun off as separate company. Spokesman Review, Dec. 6, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.52.

Associated Press. 1991. Protestors block Seattle-bound train. Seattle Times, Nov. 23, 1991. (Transportation, dock, and grain workers protest loss of jobs due to Canadian Wheat Board decision to ship through Seattle).

Associated Press. 1991. Railroad and union agree to smaller crews. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug 30, 1991. (United Transportation Union brakemen could lose jobs; BN agrees to $60,000 separation payment).

Associated Press. 1991. State is urged to buy rail pass line. Seattle Times/Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 24, 1991, p.B3. (Stampede Pass).

Associated Press. 1991. Trillium challenges railroad law. Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, Aug. 23, 1991, p.A1. (Buyer for Glacier Park land challenges Montana state law giving leaseholders first rights).

Associated Press. 1992. Burlington Northern image derails. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 3, 1992. (BN apologizes for numerous accidents in and near Spokane in 1991, ranging from creosote and fuel spills to derailings and fires).

Associated Press. 1992. Squatter fighting to keep cabin. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 2, 1992. (Buck Droll, living for 24 years on BN land on Columbia River near Longview, seeks Cowlitz Co. court order to prevent being evicted by BN. His cabin was destroyed by fire; see also Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 1, 1992).

Associated Press. 1992. Timber land sold to firm in Oregon: deal lamented by conservation activists. Post-Register (Idaho Falls ID), April 23, 1992. Reprinted in Transitions, April 1992, p.13. (Nature Conservancy failed to negotiate purchase; PC sells 164,000 acres in Gallatin and its Belgrade mill to the (Tim) Blixseth Group of Portland and McDougal Bros. of Dexter, Oregon. Included is land proposed in an exchange of 45,000 acres of PC land for 21,500 acres of Forest Service land and $3.4 million, which was included in a Montana wilderness bill (S. 1696) that passed the Senate. PC said Blixseth agreed to follow through with the Porcupine and Gallatin exchange. PC says it still owns 10 mills in NE Montana and NE Washington state).

Associated Press. 1994. Hostile bid considered by Santa Fe. New York Times, Nov. 12, 1994.

Associated Press. 1994. Santa Fe considers escape plan: Burlington Northern merger could thwart UP takeover bid. Spokesman Review, Dec. 13, 1994, p.A8.

Associated Press. 1994. Santa Fe to negotiate with Union Pacific. Spokesman Review, Nov. 30, 1994, p.A6. (Over $3.3 billion acquisition challenge to Burlington Northern).

Associated Press. 1995. Rail merger clears final hurdle: BN, Santa Fe deal to create nation's largest rail network. Spokesman-Review, July 21, 1995, reprinted in Transitions, June-July 1995, p. 16. (ICC votes 4-0 to approve $4 billion merger).

Association of American Railroads. 1922. A list of references to literature relating to the Union Pacific system. Washington, DC: Bureau of Railway Economics, Library. Reprinted by Crofton Publishing, Newton, Massachusetts. 299 p. + appendices.

Association of American Railroads. 1964. Digest and guide to card index. [Washington, D.C.?], Association of American Railroads, General Claims Division, c1964.

Association of American Railroads. Last rites for a myth. Washington DC: The Association.

Association of American Railroads. Railroad land grants-- a sharp deal for Uncle Sam. Washington DC: The Association.

Atcheson, David. Clearcuts and corporate welfare. Better World, May 1997, www.betterworld.com/BWZ/9608/forest.htm. (Railroad land grants, below-cost roadbuilding and timber sales, flooding, and timber poaching).

Athearn, Robert G. 1971. Union Pacific country. University of Nebraska Press. (Social history of the impact of the UP and its branches in the 1860s through 1890s).

Atkinson, George Henry. 1878. The northwest coast, including Oregon, Washington and Idaho, a series of articles upon the N.P.R.R. in its relations to the basins of the Columbia and of Puget's Sound. By Rev. G. H. Atkinson, D.D. Endorsed by the Portland Board of Trade. First published in the Oregonian. Portland, Or., A. G. Walling, steam printer, 1878.

Atwater, Elizabeth Rodgers. 1937. Letters of Montgomery Meigs written while engaged in the survey of the Northern Pacific Railroad 1872-1873. Unpublished Master's thesis. Missoula, MT: University of Montana.

Aweeka, Charles. 1990. State probes dumping at site near watershed. Seattle Times, May 4, 1990. (Chempro and Landsburg mine dump).

Backiel, Adela and Pamela Baldwin. 1986. Public access across private lands to federal lands. Washington, DC: US Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, April 7, 1986. 70 p.+ appendices. (Historical background and legal aspects, and the status of USFS and BLM programs to acquire access).

Baden, John. 1989. Save the environment without destroying your profits. Wall Street Journal, Aug. 21, 1989, p. A10(W), p.A8(E). (re BR).

Bain, David Haward. Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad. Viking, 1999.

Baldwin, Pamela. 1981. A legal analysis of the land grants of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Washington, DC: American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Oct. 19, 1981. 40 p. While touching upon BN's 1981 corporate restructuring and its effect upon its land grant holdings, Baldwin concentrates on the continued operation of the railroad and its branch lines. "It... is not clear whether any obligation on the part of the railroad has been fulfilled because of the passage of time and the accomplishment of the purposes of the grants, and whether any existing obligation on the part of the railroad extends to branch lines or applies only to the lines expressly mentioned in the grants. It is clear that Congress can take action to clarify these questions, either by legilsation that directs that suit be brought to determine the issues judicially, or that articulates whatever relationship between the value of the lands and the continued operation of the rialroad that Congress determines to be desirable" (from the executive summary).

Baldwin, Pamela. 1984. Federal railroad rights of way. Washington, DC: American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Feb. 2, 1984. 11 p.

Balter, Joni and Carlton Smith. 1988. BN tried to cut city out of sale: memo details intent to foil Burke-Gilman Trail extension. Seattle Times, July 29, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.20.

Balter, Joni and Dee Norton. 1988. Industrialist gives up claim to UW trail section. Seattle Times, Feb. 12, 1988. (Dennis Washington and Burke Gilman).

Balter, Joni. 1988. BN admits mistake in sale of trail land. Seattle Times, Feb. 24, 1988. (Burke-Gilman Trail).

Balter, Joni. 1988. City expects trail tale to have happy ending: BN offers to help with right-of-way deal. Seattle Times, Feb. 25, 1988, p.B2. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Balter, Joni. 1988. City fears BN derailing trail plan: tracks are ripped up next to right of way. Seattle Times, Mar. 26, 1988, p.A11. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Balter, Joni. 1988. ICC to widen probe of BN deal: track removal to be investigated. Seattle Times, Apr. 1, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Balter, Joni. 1988. Montanan promises to keep trail open: purchase won't affect Burke-Gilman access, says businessman. Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1988.

Balter, Joni. 1988. Seattle, BN seek right of way pact. Seattle Times, May 4, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Balter, Joni. 1989. Negotiations success, so Burke-Gilman Trail grows. Seattle Times, Jan. 25, 1989.

Balter, Joni. 1989. Pact forged in Burke-Gilman fight: negotiations yield accord on extending popular bike trail. Seattle Times, Jan. 24, 1989, p.B1.

Balter, Joni. Ruling opens way to voiding Burke-Gilman sale. Seattle Times, June 23, 1988. (ICC recommendation).

Balzar, John. 1990. Grizzly pig-out: bears gorge on spilled corn. Los Angeles Times, printed in Seattle Times, Aug. 20, 1990. (Along BN track in Montana; see also Engineering News Record, Mar. 30, 1992).

Barriger, J.W. 1940. Development of railway corporate structures. Law & Contem Prob 7: 367-376, Summer 1940.

Bartel, Frank. 1991. Getting back idled tracks big challenge. Spokesman Review, Oct. 13, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.28. (Cites UP's Silver Valley and Palouse lines as examples of abandonment of rail service; checkerboards a problem. Gonzaga Unversity law professor Frank Conklin explains intricacies of land grant reversionary clauses. ICC decides only abandonments, not whether land should be given back).

Basler, Christian O. Aug. 1965. The O & C lands. Washington DC: Office of Legislation and Cooperative Relations, Bureau of Land Management.

Bean, Louis E. 1917. The Oregon and California land grant. Remarks of Hon. L. E. Bean in the House of Representatives, on House bill no 302, February, 1917. Salem, Or., State Print. Dept., 1917. Beard, Henry. 1883. Railways and the United States Land Office. Agricultural Review and Industrial Monthly 1: 1-16, Apr. 1883.

Bederman, David J. 1988. The imagery of injustice at Mussel Slough: railroad land grants, corporation law, and the "great conglomerate West". Western Legal History 1(2): 237-269. (Background and history of the 1880 battle near Visalia, California, between settlers and Southern Pacific Railroad agents).

Beebe, Lucius Morris. 1965. The trains we rode [by] Lucius Beebe & Charles Clegg. Berkeley, Calif., Howell-North Books, 1965-66.

Benson, Lee. 1956. Merchants, farmers, and railroads: railroad regulation and New York politics, 1850-1887. Cambridge, Mass.

Benton, Alva H. 1925. Large land holdings in North Dakota. Journal of Land and Public Utility Economics 1: 405-413 (October 1925).

Berman, Phyllis and Roula Khalaf. 1993. Sweet-talking the board: in the face of disappointing showing, BN's Jerry grinstein has held on to his job. How much longer? Forbes, Mar. 15, 1993, p. 51-51. (See also Machalaba, 1993).

Berton, Pierre. 1971. The last spike: the great railway 1881-1885. McClelland and Stewart. Republished in 1989 by Penguin without source notes or bibliography. (History of Canadian Pacific, with J.J. Hill on exececutive committee).

Berton, Pierre. 1972. The impossible railway. NY: Knopf.

Best, Gary Dean. 1973. James J. Hill's 'lost opportunity on the Pacific.' Pacific Northwest Quarterly, January 1973, p.8-11. (Title is from J.J. Hill article in "World's Work". The Great Northern Steamship Co., created in 1900 to run from Seattle to Yokohama and Hong Kong, was to carry traffic in lumber, wheat, and cotton. Two giant merchant ships, the Dakota and the Minnesota, were completed in 1904. Hill sold rails to Japan. In 1906, the ICC ruled that the overland portion of rail-ship rates was subject to all regulations, including being made public. Since publication of preferential rates offered to export shippers (to compete with subsidized foreign shipping lines) would damage relations with domestic shippers, the railroads were unwilling to continue exports. The Japanese also placed a tariff on wheat. In March 1907 the Dakota struck a rock in Tokyo Bay and sank. The export trade collapsed as shippers used foreign lines for their exports. See also Hill, 1905 and 1910).

Billings Gazette. 1978. Forest, rail swap is opposed. Aug. 27, 1978. Billings, Mont.

Binns, Archie. 1944. The timber beast. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Biskeborn, Susan. 1982. Doing it the Japanese way. Seattle Weekly, Oct. 6-13, 1982, p.21-23. (BN International Services; agreement with China; Bressler on export councils).

Bixler, Herbert E. 1982. Railroads: their rise and fall. Jaffrey Center, NH: H.E. Bixler.

Black, William R. 1975. States and rural rail preservation: alternative strategies. Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments. 142 p.

Bloomberg Business News. Burlington Resources shifting its focus. Seattle Times, Mar. 2, 1993, p.F8. (Shifts from acquiring natural gas reserves and exploration to development of its five trillon cubic feet. Burlington Resources president and Meridian Oil head Don Clayton was replaced by Chairman Thomas O'Leary. Meridian held 13.3 million acres of drilling land in 1991).

Boening, Rose M. History of irrigation in the state of Washington. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 9: 259-276; 10: 21-45.

Bonbright, James Cummings. 1969. Railroad capitalization: a study of the principles of regulation of railroad securities. AMS Press. 206 p.

Bonney, William Pierce. Reminiscences: naming Stampede Pass. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 12: 272-278.

Bonum Meritum, pseud. War of Words Between President Roosevelt and J. Pierpont Morgan Concerning

Boren, Rebecca. 1988. Trumping Seattle. Seattle Weekly, Feb. 24, 1988. (David Sabey).

Boston Economic Club. President Roosevelt's Railroad Policy: Report of a Discussion Before the Economic

Bourne, E.W. 1942. Findings of "value" in railroad reorganizations. Yale Law Journal 51: 1057-1092, May 1942.

Boyer, Kenneth D. et al. 1981. Economic regulation: essays in honor of James R. Nelson. East Lansing, Mich.: Institute of Public Utilities, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Michigan State University, 1981.

Bozeman Daily Chronicle. 1979. Coal is king of BN road. Apr. 15, 1979.

Bradley, Glenn Danford. 1920. The story of the Santa Fe. Boston.

Brake, Robert. 1993. Hill's Great Northern railroad didn't rely on government subsidies. Oregonian, June 8, 1993. (Letter to the editor in response to James Long's "Of Grants and Greed" article of May 23, 1993).

Branch, Edward Douglas. 1929. Frederick West Lander, road-builder. [Cedar Rapids, Mississippi Valley historical review, 1929].

Brelsford, Harry. 1992. Northwest links: keeping up with environmental services. Alaska Business Monthly, January 1992, p.66,68. (Burlington Environmental's Chempro received Environmental Excellence Award from Washington State Governor and Weyerhaeuser heir Booth Gardner in 1986).

Briggs, H.E. 1932. Early bonanza farming in the Red River Valley of the North. Agricultural History 6: 26-37 (January 1932).

Brinkman, Jonathon. 1996. Physician to explain clear-cutting's link to railways. Idaho Statesman, Feb. 2, 1996.

Brown, Dee. 1978. Hear that lonesome whistle blow: railroads in the West. New York: Bantam Books. 309 p.

Brown, Henry S. 1907. Punishing the land looters. Outlook, Feb. 1907, p.427-439.

Brown, J.L. 1957. More memorials to Mussel Slough. Pacific Historical Review 26. (Background and history of the 1880 battle near Visalia, California, between settlers and Southern Pacific Railroad agents; see also McKee, 1948).

Brown, Margaret. 1933. Asa Whitney and his Pacific Railroad publicity campaign. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 20(9): 223-224.

Brown, Nelson. 1923. The American lumber industry. New York: John Wiler and Sons.

Bruchey, Stuart, ed. 1981. Memoirs of three railroad pioneers. New York: Arno Press, 1981. (Hill, Harriman, and Hopkins).

Bryant, Keith L. Jr., ed. 1988. Railroads in the age of regulation, 1900-1980. Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography. NY: Facts on File. 518 p. (See also Frey).

Buchanan, Iva L. January 1936. Lumbering and logging in the Puget Sound region in Territorial days. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 27: 34-53.

Buchholtz, Curt W. 1969. The historical dichotomy of use and preservation in Glacier National Park. Master's thesis. University of Montana.

Buck, Richard. 1988. Upcoming labor talks cited in BN restructuring. Seattle Times, June 3, 1988. (BR stock would be immune from labor problem effects).

Bureau of National Affairs. 1989. Montana: state agency sues Burlington Northern over railroad's hazardous waste dumping. Environment Reporter Current Developments, Jan. 13, 1989, p.1843-1844. (Livingston, Montana groundwater contaminated).

Burlingame, Merrill Gildea. The influence of the military in the building of Montana. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 29: 135-150.

Burlington Northern Law Department. 1970. Consummation of unification, effective March 2, 1970, the merger date: closing memorandum. 2 vols.

Burlington Northern Public Relations Advertising Dept. Railroad land grants: key to Western development.

Burlington Northern Railroad and Glacier Park Co. 1988. Asset transfer agreement and deed. May 26, 1988. (Exhibit A describing the property (page 9) is blank).

Burlington Northern Railroad ARES Program Office. 1989. ARES for safety and service. BN, July 1989. 8 p. brochure. (Describes the BN ARES (Advanced Railroad Electronics System) for computerized train locating, speed and throttle-brake control, and communications, etc. Tested at the Mesabi Iron Range. Also involved are Rockwell International (engineering and integration conractor), the Federal Railroad Administration (monitoring for safety compliance), and the Dept. of Defense (through its Navstar satellites). See also Gibbons, 1990).

Burlington Northern Railroad ARES Program Office. ARES for safety and service. Overland Park, KS: BN ARES Dept. No date. 4 p. brochure. . (See Gibbons, 1990).

Burlington Resources. 1988. Amendment No. 2 to Form S-1 registration statement containing a prospectus for the sale of 20 million shares of common stock. Filed with the SEC on July 7, 1988. 88 p. + appendices. .

Burlington Resources. 1988. Prospectus for 20 million shares common stock. Filed with the SEC on June 2, 1988. 85 p. .

Burlington Resources. 1991. 1990 annual report. Seattle. 46 p.

Burlington Route et aL. 1905. Atlas of western, northwestern and middle western states: with maps of the Island Possessions, Japan, China, United States and the world, showing location of railway lines of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, Great Northern Railway, Northern Pacific Railway / issued by the passenger departments Burlington Route, Great Northern Railway, Northern Pacific Railway. [S.l.]: The Railways, 1905?.

Bush, James. 1991. End of the line? Lake Union's last rails could be removed if railroad goes through with abandonment. The North Seattle Press / The Lake Union Review, Oct. 1991, p.1, 3.

Business Week. 1972. A new fight erupts over land grants. Business Week, Sept. 16, 1972.

Busk, Charles Westly. 1884. Notes of a journey from Toronto to British Columbia, via the Northern Pacific railway (June to July 1884): being letters to his sister and mother from Charles Westly Busk. London, Printed by Taylor and Francis, 1884.

Butters, John Keith, John Lintner, and W.L. Cary. 1951. Effects of taxation: corporate mergers. Boston: Harvard University, Div. of Res. 364 p.

Byrne, Harlan S. 1991. Burlington Resources Inc.: reserve buildup sets stage for sharp profit growth. Barron's 71(12): 49-50. (Mar. 25, 1991). (Natural gas reserves up 370 percent in 1990 to 5.36 trillion cubic feet. Production also increased, and profits were up 40 percent and revenues up 8 percent).

Cameron, Mindy. 1991. Nature Conservancy decides to mix it up. Seattle Times, May 19, 1991. (Glacier Park CEO Chris Bayley serves on The Nature Conservancy's national board).

Campbell, E.G. 1938. The reorganization of the American railroad system, 1893-1900. New York.

Campbell, Marius Robinson. 1915. Guidebook of the western United States; part A. The Northern Pacific route, with a side trip to Yellowstone Park by Marius R. Campbell and others. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1915.

Campbell, Marius Robinson. 1916. Guidebook of the western United States; part A. The Northern Pacific route, with a side trip to Yellowstone park, by Marius R. Campbell and others. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1916.

Campbell, Michael H. and Edward C. Brewer, III. 1988. The Railway Labor Act of 1926: a legislative history. Buffalo, N.Y.: Published for ABA Section on Labor and Employment Law by W.S. Hein, 1988.

Canada. Governor General (1872-1878: Dufferin). Message relative to the terms of union with the province of British Columbia. Printed by order of Parliament. Ottawa, Printed by MacLean Roger & Co., 1875.

Canfield, Thomas H. 1870. Northern Pacific railroad; partial report of the Board of directors of a portion of a reconnoissance made in the summer of 1869, between Lake Superior, & the Pacific ocean .. accompanied with notes on Puget Sound by Samuel Wilkeson. For private circulation only. [n.p.] 1870.

Canfield, Thomas Hawley. 1889. Life of Thomas Hawley Canfield; his early efforts to open a route for the transportation of the products of the West to New England, by way of the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, and Vermont railroads, and his connection with the early history of the Northern Pacific Railroad, from the history of the Red River Valley, North Dakota and park region of northwestern Minnesota. Burlington, Vt., 1889.

Carroll, Francis M. and Franklin R. Raiter. 1985. The people versus the government: the 1918 Cloquet fire and the struggle for compensation. Journal of Forest History 29(1): 4-21, Jan. 1985. (Begun along Great Northern Railroad tracks; hundreds died; 15,000 cases filed; compensation finally recovered in 1935).

Carson, Will. 1890. Tacoma [map]: western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad. [United States: s.n.], c1890.

Carstenson, Vernon, ed. 1963. The public lands. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. (Reprints Robert S. Henry and his critics from the Mississippi Valley Historical Review).

Cascade Checkerboard News: Newsletter of the Cascade Checkerboard Project. Seattle: Sierra Club Foundation.

Celis, William. 1988. Burlington Northern plans announcement. Wall Street Journal, June 2, 1988, p.3(W), p.3(E). (Possible divestment).

Celis, William. 1988. New Burlington Northern unit to offer shares; parent may spin off 87% of resources subsidiary; separate charges planned. Wall Street Journal, June 3, 1988, p.4(W), p.4(E).

Center for the Study of Responsive Law. 1970. The Interstate Commerce Omission: the public interest and the ICC. The Ralph Nader Study Group Report, Robert C. Fellmeth, project director. New York: Grossman Publishers.

Chadwick, Kyle. Big-time impact in the Big Sky state. American Lawyer, March 1991, p. 104-106. (Profile of Bozeman attorney James Goetz; early case involved Big Sky ski resort-Chet Huntley-Chrysler, and Burlington Northern Railroad land exchange with federal government).

Chalmers, David M. 1976. Neither socialism nor monopoly: TR and the decision to regulate the railroads. Philadelphia: Lippincott. 121 p.

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Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 1905. Atlas of western, northwestern and middle western states: with maps of the Island Possessions, Japan, China, United States and the world, showing location of railway lines of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, Great Northern Railway, Northern Pacific Railway, issued by the passenger departments Burlington Route, Great Northern Railway, Northern Pacific Railway. [S.l.]: The Railways, 1905?.

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Choices. 1993. BNNR proposes commuter rail to Everett. Choices: Bimonthly Newsletter of the regional Transit Project (Seattle), 4(3): 3, May 1993. (BN proposes $250 million upgrade be paid for with public funds).

Clark, Norman H. 1970. Mill town: a social history of Everett, Washington, from its earliest beginnings on the shores of Puget Sound to the tragic and infamous event known as the Everett Massacre. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

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Cogan, Douglas G. 1992. Shareholders press environmental issues: a 10-point environmental code known as the Valdez Principles has once again captured the limelight at many of this year's annual meetings. Directors & Boards 16(4): 53-57, Summer 1992. (Cogan, with the Investor Resonsibility Research Center, surveys shareholder activism regarding the Valdez Principles. He says that 22.2 percent of the shareholders of Burlington Resources' voted for a resolution requiring the company to prepare a report on its reactions to the Valdez Principles of environmental corporate responsibility; this is the first time more than 20 percent of any corporation's shareholders have approved a "social proxy" issue other than South Africa).

Cohen, Todd and Joni Balter. 1988. Deal assures Burke-Gilman Trail extension. Seattle Times, July 9, 1988.

Cole, Jeff. 1985. Group says BN, Champion paid no tax. Missoulian, May 15, 1985. Reprinted in Transitions, May 1992, p.42. (Citizens for Tax Justice's 1984 study "Corporate Income Taxes in the Reagan Years" said BN and Champion paid no income taxes in the three years 1981 through 1983. BN's 1981-1983 profits were $1.7 billion; BN qualified for a tax refund of $37.6 million. BN claims they paid about $200,000 per year in federal income taxes for those years, and that 1984 and 1985 taxes would be $34 million and $50 million. See also Siegner, 1986).

Coleman, Edmund T. 1875. Puget Sound, and the Northern Pacific Railroad. II. London, Cassell, Petter and Galpin [1875?]. Coleman, Edmund T. Puget Sound and the Northern Pacific Railroad. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 23: 243-260.

Columbia University, Academy of Political Science. 1917. Labor disputes and public service corporations; a series of addresses and papers presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of political science in the city of New York, November 22-23, 1916; ed. by Henry Raymond Mussey. New York, The Academy of Political Science, 1917.

Columbia University, Academy of Political Science. 1919. Railroad legislation; a series of addresses and papers presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of political science in the city of New York, November 21-22, 1919, ed by Thurman William Van Metre. New York, The Academy of Political Science, Columbia University, c1919.

Columbia University, Academy of Political Science. 1922. Railroads and business prosperity; a series of addresses and papers presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of political science in the city of New York, April 28, 1922, ed. by T.W. Van Metre and Parker Thomas Moon. [New York] The Academy of Political Science, Columbia University, 1922.

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Conant, Michael. 1964. Railroad mergers and abandonemnts. Berkeley: University of California Press. 213 p.

Conklin, Ellis E. 1993. A weary village breathes its last: dying logging hamlet vanishes in a blaze, but without glory. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 31, 1993, p. B1. (The end of Lester, Washington, founded by Northern Pacific Railroad in 1891; Scott Paper and Tacoma Public Unitilies also managed the area; interviews Gertrude Murphy, age 90).

Connelly, Joel. 1988. The pal-itics of lobbying old colleagues on the Hill. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 6, 1988. (Grinstein as "great white shark of Northwest lawyer-lobbyists" - aluminum, nuclear, and timber).

Connelly, Joel. 1990. Lincoln policy shaped local forest landscape. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 12, 1990. (Part of a longer article titled "State's private timber falls victim to short-term profits." The Lincoln policy section briefly describes the history of the railroad land grant that benefitted Plum Creek and Weyerhaeuser).

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Cooke, Jay and Co. 1870. The Northern Pacific Railroad's land grant and the future business of the road. Philadephia: Jay Cooke and Co.

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Cooke, Jay. 1870. The Northern Pacific railroad's land grant and the future business of the road. [Philadelphia? Issued by Jay Cooke & Co., bankers. 1870?].

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Cooper, James Graham. 1859. The natural history of Washington territory, with much relating to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oregon, and California, between the thirty-sixth and forty-ninth parallels of latitude, being those parts of the final reports on the survey of the Northern Pacific railroad route, containing the climate and physical geography, with full catalogues and descriptions of the plants and animals collected from 1853 to 1857. By J. G. Cooper, M. D., and Dr. G. Suckley .. This edition contains a new preface, giving a sketch of the explorations, a classified table of contents, and the latest additions by the authors. With fifty-five new plates of scenery, botany, and zoology, and an isothermal chart of the route. New York, Bailliere brothers, London, H. Bailliere; [etc., etc.] 1859.

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Cords, Marion. 1921. Bibliography of railroads in the Pacific Northwest. Washington (State) Historical Quarterly 17(2): 91-114.

Cornell, Judy Clayton. 1993. The heyday of back country travel. Whitefish: the Magazine of Northwest Montana 6(1): 20-22, 65-67, Summer-Fall 1993. (Anecdotal history of the development and early days of Glacier National Park. "They [the Great Northern Railroad, as park concessionaire] was expected to function for the benefit of the public interest and to respond to Park Service requests. During the 1920's, the Park Service began to exert stiffer control and requested the removal of the sawmill at Many Glacier. The Great Northern was unresponsive and on the occasion of a 1925 visit, NPS Director Stephen Mather personally blasted the mill with 13 charges of dynamite. The relationship between the Great Northern and the NPS cooled after this incident).

Corr, O. Casey. 1988. The chairman: BN's Bressler is one tough boss - and a puzzle. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, March 22, 1988, p.B4.

Cortner, Richard C. 1993. The iron horse and the Constitution: the railroads and the transformation of the fourteenth amendment. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

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Cotroneo, Ross Ralph. 1973. Reserving the subsurface: the mineral lands policy of the Northern Pacific Railway, 1900-1954. North Dakota History, Summer 1973.

Cotroneo, Ross Ralph. 1976. Timber marketing by the Northern Pacific Railway, 1920-1952. Journal of Forest History 20(3): 120-131, July 1976.

Cotroneo, Ross Ralph. 1980. United States v. Northern Pacific Railway Company: the final settlement of the land grant case, 1924-1941. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 71(3): 107-111, July 1980.

Cotroneo, Ross Ralph. 1987. Northern Pacific Railway's land-grant sales policies. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 37(2): 40-49.

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Cox, John H. Trade associations in the lumber industry of the Pacific Northwest, 1899-1914. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 41: 285-311.

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Craig, Jerry. 1989. County approves trade. Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, Dec. 12, 1989. (Glacier Park - Cougar Mt. exchange).

Craig, Jerry. 1990. Glacier Park sale imminent. Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, Jan. 15-16, 1990. (14,000 acres in PNW, other areas throughout the U.S. and Canada, for sale for $450 million. Some $40 million has already been sold. Morgan Stanley is handling the sale).

Crawford, T.C. 1885. The Great Land Steals. New York World, May 23, 1885, pp. 1-2.

Creedy, John A. 1983. Why a Congressional investigation of the rail land grants. ICC Practitioners' Journal 50(2):156-162, Jan-Feb 1983. (President of the Water Transportation Association, which has sponsored a series of studies on economic aid to railroads. This article is in response to Frank Wilner's 1981 article in the same journal. States that the railroads' claim to have paid back the government in reduced rates is a myth. Cites numerous agricultural organizations that called in the 1980s for hearings. Cites a Congressional Research Service report [Baldwin, 1981] that stated that Congress could assert jurisdiction over the issue).

Cuff, Daniel F. 1988. Burlignton Northern chief calls its spinoff a gain. New York Times, Sept. 5, 1988, p.23(N), p.29(L). (BN Motors Carriers inc.; Richard Rogan)

Cuff, Daniel F. 1988. Burlington Northern names 2 executives. New York Times, Oct. 21, 1988, p.29(N), p.D3(L). (Grinstein and O'Leary)

Cuff, Daniel F. 1990. SAC leader to retire and join the railroad. New York Times, Dec. 6, 1990, p.C4(N), p.D4(L). (Strategic Air Command Gen. John T. Chain Jr. becomes BN VP).

Cushing, George H. 1909. Hill against Harriman. American Magazine, Sept. 1909.

Daggett, Stuart. 1908. Railroad reorganization. NY: Houghton Mifflin.

Daggett, Stuart. 1922. Chapters on the history of the Southern Pacific. NY: August M. Kelley Publishers, 1966. (Thorough; includes a chapter on SP's oil and timber).

Daggett, Stuart. 1928. Principles of inland transportation. Harper. (Covers regulatory history).

Daggett, Stuart. 1933. Railroad consolidation west of the Mississippi River. University of California Publications in Economics, Vol. 11. Berkeley. Republished by Arno Press.

Daughen, Joseph R. and Peter Binzen. 1971. The wreck of the Penn Central. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. (See also Stephen Salsbury).

Davis, Jefferson. Report on explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 10 volumes. (Davis was U.S. Secretary of War from 1852 to 1856).

Dawson, Pat. 1987. BN pulls out: is Montana being (de)railroaded? High Country News, Dec. 7, 1987. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.15-16,17-18. (Sale of 900 miles of BN "short line" to Montana Rail Link and resulting labor problems. October 1987 approval of trade of 350 million tons of coal between the U.S. and Meridian Minerals. U.S. would get 11,553 acres and 181 million tons; BN would get 7,887 acres and 173 million tons. Opposed by Northern Plains Resource Council and National Coal Association. Concerns by Sen. John Melcher and Rep. Pat Williams. Staggers short line loophole challenged by citizens group. BN raid of Milwaukee Road freight business. ICC captured by railroads: Gaskins approved BN purchase of Milwaukee Road track; refuses to disclose details of BN/MRL deal).

Dawson, Pat. 1987. The BN pot continues to boil in Montana. High Country News, Dec. 21, 1987. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.15. (BN Winona Bridge plan to avoid union rules approved by ICC; called blackmail by Montana Public Service Commissioner Howard Ellis. UTU union says BN wants out of railroad business altogether; file lawsuit against Montana Rail Link deal).

Dearstyne, Bruce W. 1986. Railroads and railroad regulations in New York State, 1900-1913. New York: Garland, 1986.

Decker, Bob. 1990. Timber industry jobs being liquidated. Bozeman Daily Chronicle, Feb. 14, 1990, p.1.

Decker, Leslie Edward. 1960. The railroads and the Land Office: administrative policy and the land patent controversy, 1864-1896. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 40: 679-699.

Decker, Leslie Edward. 1961. Railroads, lands and politics: the taxation of railroad land grants, 1864-1897. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, 1961. Published in 1964 by Brown University Press, Providence, RI. (Deals with Kansas and Nebraska only).

Defebaugh, James E. 1906-1907. History of the lumber industry in America. Chicago: American Lumberman. 2 vols.

Delahunty, Michael. 1924. The Plum Creek railroad attack, 1867. Nebraska History 7: 38, Apr-June 1924.

Dempsey, Paul S. 1989. The social and economic consequences of deregulation: the transportation industry in transition. Westpool, CT: Quorum Books.

Dempsey, Paul S. and William E. Thomas. 1986. Law and economic regulation in transportation. NY: Quorum Books.

Denne, Loraine. 1990. Burlington Resources bets heavily on oil and gas. Puget Sound Business Journal, July 2, 1990, p.11. (A billion dollars raised since restructuring; spending on energy exploration).

Denney, C.E. 1949. The Northern Pacific: first of the northern transcontinentals. NY: The Newcomen Society.

Deverell, William F. 1989. Building an octopus: railroads and society in late nineteenth century Far West. PhD dissertation. Princeton University.

DeVoto, Bernard. August 1934. The West: a plundered province. Harpers Magazine 169: 355-363.

DeWolf, James. Williams wants limits on BN land grants. Missoulian, Sept. 11, 1982. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.26. (Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Chairman James McClure and member Henry Jackson are sponsors of a proposal to repeal Section 2-C of the 1920 Minerals Leasing Act, which prohibits land grant railroads from federal coal leases. Rep. Pat Williams introduces bill that would replace Section 2-C with a requirement that land grant railroads or their holding companies use a third of their pre-tax profits for railroad maintenance; a third of the money would be earmarked for branch lines. Williams fears the formation of a BN holding company will mean the siphoning of land grant assets such as coal to non-rail subsidiaries, as happened with the bankrupt Milwaukee Road. See also Mea Andrews article, Sept. 12, 1982, and Missoulian editorial, Sept. 29, 1982).

Dibble, Roy Floyd. 1923. Strenuous Americans. New York, Boni and Liveright [c1923]. (Includes biography of J.J. Hill).

Dickman, Howard Leigh. 1977. James Jerome Hill and the agricultural development of the Northwest. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. (Hill and the Great Northern).

Dietz, David. 1991. Derailments, chemical spills spur concern about rail safety. San Francisco Chronicle, Omaha World-Herald, Dec. 30, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Mar. 1992. (Cites Federal Railroad Administration statistics showing a fourfold increase since 1986 in violations for improper handling of hazardous materials. Describes 1990 Congressional testimony by Citizen Action, and 1991 hearings held by Barbara Boxer in response to the 1991 SP Sacramento River spill. Safety officals blame deregulation for increased competition which has resulted in fewer safety inspections. Railroad officals blame government regulators for nitpicking on routine problems; they say derailments fell 67 percent since 1980. California claims derailments were up 65 percent from 1987 to 1990).

Do, Vinh. 1994. Train station's renovation would affect International District: city studying three different alternatives for King Street Station. International Examiner (Seattle), Feb. 2, 1994, p. 1,9.

Doig, Ivan C. 1969. John J. McGilvra: The Life and Times of an Urban Frontiersman. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.

Doig, Ivan C. 1970. John J. McGilvra and timber tresspass: seeking a Puget Sound timber policy. Forest History 12 (Jan. 1970): 6-17.

Donaldson, Thomas. 1884. The public domain: its history, with statistics. 47th Cong., 2d sess., House Misc. Document No. 45, Pt. 4, Serial 2158. Washington, DC: Govt. Printing Office.

Donnelly, Charles. 1924. The facts about the Northern Pacific land grant, Charles Donnelly. [St. Paul, Minn.: Northern Pacific Railway Co., 1924].

Donnelly, Charles. 1924. The facts about the Northern Pacific land grant. St. Paul: Northern Pacific Railway Co. 24p. (The president of the Northern Pacific defends his railroad).

Donnelly, Charles. 1924. U.S. contests Northern Pacific land grant. Railway Age, June 28, 1924.

Donovan, J.J. 1912. The problem of our logged off lands. American Forestry 18: 467-468, July 1912.

Donway, Walter. 1992. In defense of decades of greed. Wall Street Journal, Sept. 4, 1992. (Donway attacks Matthew Josephson's 1934 book "The Robber Barons," and defends the barons for their ambition, creativity, determination, and profits, in the process blaming the current savings and loan "debacle" on "intrusive government").

Douglas, George H. 1992. All aboard! the railroad in American life. Paragon House. 462 p.

Dowdle, Barney; Hanke, Steve H. 1985. Public timber policy and the wood-products industry. Pages 77-102 in: Forestlands, public and private. San Francisco: Pacific Institute for Public Policy Research.

Downey, Heidi S. 1990. Tracking Down the Law of Railroad Abandonement in the United States. Seattle: University of Washington School of Law, Spring 1990. 43 p. (Peak of 272,000 miles of railroad in 1920, reduced to 141,000 miles in 1990; 3000 miles per year to be abandoned through 1990s. Issues are possession, use, and abandonment, survival of railroads, open space, and recreation areas. Covers Interstate Commerce Act, state common law, and Federal Trails Act Amendments).

Ducker, James H. 1983. Men of the steel rails: workers on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, 1869-1900. Lincoln; UNiversity of Nebraska Press.

Due, John F. 1979. State rail plans and programs. Quarterly Review of Economics and Business 19: 109-130, Summer 1979. (Makes the argument that local, small-scale subsidies can be efficient).

Dufwa, Thamar Emelia. 1933. Transcontinental railroad legislation: 1835-1862. M.A. Thesis. Univ. of North Dakota. 161 p.+ Republished by Arno Press in 1981.

Dunham, Harold H. 1937. Some crucial years of the General Land Office, 1875-1890. Agricultural History, 11: 117-141. Reprinted in Carstenson, 1963.

Dunham, Harold H. 1941. Government handout: a study in the administration of the public lands, 1875-1891. Grasmere, NY.

Dunn, Samuel Orace. 1919. Regulation of railways, including a discussion of government ownership versus government control, by Samuel O. Dunn. New York, London, D. Appleton and Company, 1919.

Dunsire, Charles. 1991. The case for heavy rail: for rail transit, why not save money with existing tracks?. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 13, 1991. (BN and Puget Sound rail transit possibilities; BN "is willing to consider such proposals," but not willing to finance track improvements, passenger coaches, or signalization, or interfere with its freight traffic).

Durbin, Kathie & Paul Koberstein. 1990. New Forestry: trying logging with a lighter touch. Oregonian, Oct. 15, 1990, p.21.

Ebner. 1985. Mineral ownership beneath railroad rights-of-way. Rocky Mt. Mineral Law Inst. 17(1).

Egan, Timothy. 1988. Seattle bids to make old rails new trails. New York Times, Mar. 12, 1988, p.6(N), p.7(L). (Trail sold to Dennis Washington).

Egner, P. R. 1919. The log of the U.S.S. Northern Pacific during the Great World War. A true story of the adventures of the U.S.S Northern Pacific during the war, as seen by P. R. Enger and G. M. Gates, photos by D. R. Lowry. [New York: Brooklyn Eagle Press] 1919?.

Ellefson, Paul V. and Robert N. Stone. 1984. U.S. wood-based industry: industrial organization and performance. New York: Praeger. 479 p.

Ellis, David Maldwyn. 1945. Railroad land grant rates, 1850-1945. Journal of Land and Public Untility Economics 21: 207-227, March 1945. (Rate concessions due the federal government under the land grants were insignificant until the 1930s; but by 1944, the War Department had saved $2 billion [citing Root, 1987, p.111]).

Ellis, David Maldwyn. 1946. Comment on "The Railroad Land Grant Legend in American History Texts" [by Robert S. Henry]. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 1946, 32: 557-563.

Ellis, David Maldwyn. 1946. The forfeiture of railroad land grants, 1867-1894. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, June 1946, 33(1): 27-60. Republished in Gates, 1979.

Ellis, David Maldwyn. 1948. The Oregon and California Railroad land grant 1866-1945. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 39(4): 253-283, Oct. 1948. Also publshed in Gates, 1979.

Engerman, Stanley L. 1972. Some economic issues relating to railroad subsidies and the evaluation of land grants. Journal of Economic History 32(2): 443-463, June 1972.

Engineering & Mining Journal. 1989. Record Idaho gold deposit reported at Beartrack. E&MJ, January 1989, p.7. (Meridian).

Engineering News Record. 1992. Orlando's magic rails. ENR, May 4, 1992, p.21. (The world's first commercial magnetic-levitation train line is planned for Orlando, Florida. The $600-million, 10-mile line, to operate in 1997, is to be financed by Japanese banks and conglomerates, a German unit of Daimler Benz, and U.S. seed money from 1991 federal transportation legislation).

Engineering News Record. 1992. Welded rails on curves save the lives of bears. ENR, Mar. 30, 1992, p.27. (Rail replacement to reduce derailments that spill corn which ferments and intoxicates bears; nine bears had been killed on or near tracks in the past five years).

Epes, James. 1992. Burlington's Glacier Park prepares to close its doors. Puget Sound Business Journal, May 8-14, 1992, p.16. . (Details several recent sales of real estate by "Burlington Northern subsidiary").

Erickson, Jim. 1989. BR arms itself against Pennzoil. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 24, 1989.

Erickson, Jim. 1990. Behring's firm buys properties of Glacier Park. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 31, 1990. (3800 acres in six parcels: Glacier Ridge, Grand Ridge, Lake Desire, Squak Mt., Novelty Hill).

Erickson, Jim. 1990. Burlington Environmental to go public: sale could bring Sabey $27 million. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 31, 1991.

Ervin, Keith. 1991. Metro takes questions on rail plan: the biggest one: where will line go? Seattle Times, Oct. 16, 1991.

Ervin, Keith. 1991. Toxic corrosives' 'grave' found: trench is near Kent's water supply. Seattle Times, Mar. 30, 1991, p.A5. (Chempro dumping of oil sludge at Landsburg Mine site on Plum Creek land).

Evans, William B. and Robert L. Peterson. 1970. Decision at Colstrip: the Northern Pacific Railway's open pit mining operation. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 61: 129-136, April 1970.

Everett, Carroll. When they were boys, by Carroll Everett and Charles Francis Reed; illustrated by Charles E. Bracker; edited by Helen Mildred Owen [and] Mary E. Owen. Dansville, N. Y., F. A. Owen Publishing Company, c1922.

Fair, Don. 1988. BN sells Burke-Gilman Trail to developer. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 6, 1988. (Dennis Washington).

Fairweather, Hanford W. 1919. The Northern Pacific Railroad and some of its history. Washington Historical Quarterly 10: 95-101.

Farmer, Brian. 1988. Roslyn logging plan aired. Daily Record (Ellensburg, WA), Oct. 15, 1988.

Farmer. 1926. The railroads and frontier populism. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, p.387-397.

Farnham. Wallace D. 1962. The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. Nebraska History 43: 141-167.

Farr, W.H. 1927. Who should control our public lands which contain minerals? Mining Congress Journal 13: 98-100, Feb. 1927).

Feder, Barnaby J. 1994. Shippers wary of a rail merger: 2 lines competing for a Santa Fe deal. New York Times, Nov. 7, 1994, p.C1, C6. (Union Pacific and Burlington Northern advertisements aimed at their respective shareholders ran in the NYT the same day).

Ficken, Robert E. 1979. Weyerhaeuser and the Pacific Northwest timber industry, 1899-1903. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70: 146-154, Oct. 1979.

Ficken, Robert E. 1987. The forested land: a history of lumbering in western Washington. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 324 p.

Field, Shannon M. 1995. Marlboro man may lend a hand. Billings Gazette, Sept. 8, 1995, p. 1A,9A. (Billings Depot, Inc., a non-profit organization, applied for $1.1 million from Philip Morris Foundation; the restoration of the Northern Pacific depot in Billings also includes a new roof paid for with $220,000 in federal money).

Fishlow, Albert. 1965. American railroads and the transformation of the antebellum economy. Harvard Univ. Press.

Fishlow, Albert. Economic contribution of American railroads.

Fleisig, Heywood. 1973. The Union Pacific Railroad and the railroad land grant controversy. Explorations in Economic History 11. (Disputes Mercer).

Fleisig, Heywood. 1975. The Central Pacific and the railroad land grant controversy. Journal of Economic History 35. (Disputes Mercer).

Flores, Michele Matassa. 1991. Industrial land in Magnolia is purchased. Seattle Times, June 26, 1991. (Sale by Glacier Park).

Fogel, Robert W. 1960. The Union Pacific Railroad: a case in premature enterprise. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Fogel, Robert W. 1964. Railroads and American economic growth: essays in econometric history. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Forbes. 1967. Union Pacific's Western empire. Forbes, Mar. 1, 1967, p.34-40,45. (History of Harriman family; value of natural resources; financial problems).

Forbes. 1978. Burlington Northern: an elephant by the tail. Forbes, Oct. 30, 1978, p.98-99. (Financial problems; maintenance expenses; natural resources; says BN is "consuming itself." Accompanied by an article on the problems of railroad mergers).

Fortune. 1978. The big play at Chicago Milwaukee. Fortune, May 22, 1978.

Foster, George. 1991. Critics worry about dump site's past. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 24, 1991, p.B3. (Chempro involvement in illegal dumping of oil sludge at Black Diamond).

Foster, George. 1991. Landfill proposal draws fire at hearing in Black Diamond. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 24, 1991, p.B3.

Foster, George. 1991. Toxins found in drums at Ravensdale mine site. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 10, 1991, p.B1,B8. (Drums found at old Landsberg mine found to contain solvents, including phenol, toluene, xylene, and acetone, heavy metals, cyanide, and PCBs. The six firms potentially liable for cleanup are PACCAR, BE, BR, Chempro, Meridian Oil, and Plum Creek.

Foster, George. Short-term benefits seen with valley train. Seattle Post-Intelligencr, Jan. 25, 1991. (proposal for BN Auburn-Seattle light rail similar to BN service in Chicago).

Foster, J. Todd. xxx , reprinted in Transitions, June-July 1995, p. 8, 10. (Reviews the Inland Empire Public Lands Council's book "Railroads & Clearcuts").

Frederick, David C. 1991. Railroads, robber barons, and the saving of Stanford University. Western Legal History 4(2): 224-256. (Discusses the roles of judges Field and Sawyer).

Freeman, James W. 1985. The ties that bind: railroads, coal, utilities, the ICC, and the public interest. Transportation Law Journal 14(1). (Covers legislative and regulatory actions regarding revenue adequacy, market dominance, coal rate guidleines, and export coal).

Frey, H. Thomas. 1979. Major uses of land in the United States: 1974. Agricultural Economics Report 440. Wash, DC: Statistics and Cooperative Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Frey, Robert L. and Lorenz P. Schrenk. 1985. Northern Pacfifc Railway supersteam era: 1925-1945. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books. 2 vols.

Frey, Robert L., ed. 1988. Railroads in the 19th century. Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography. NY: Facts on File. 491 p.

Frey, Robert L., ed. 1988. Railroads in the nineteenth century / edited by Robert L Frey. New York: Facts on File, c1988.

Friedlander, Ann F. 1971. Social costs of regulating the railroads. American Economic Review 61: 226-234, May 1971.

Friedlander, Ann F. and Richard H. Spady. 1981. Freight transportation regulation: equity, efficiency, and competition in the rail and trucking industries. MIT Press.

Friedman, Jesse J. and Associates. 1980. Grants of public aid to railroads. (Series of studies sponsored by the Water Transportation Association).

Fries, Robert F. 1951. Empire in pine: the story of lumbering in Wisconsin, 1830-1900. Madison: The State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Gaboury, Jane. 992. Getting America on track for high-speed rail. Civil Engineering News, April 1992, p.18-19. (Short summaries of two dozen projects currently being studied or underway around the U.S.).

Gaertner, John T. 1990. North Bank Road: the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway. Pullman: Washington State University Press. 246 p. + photographs. (History from the Hill/Harriman battle to the acquisition by BN, by a BN dispatcher).

Gates, Charles Marvin. A historical sketch of the economic development of Washington since statehood. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 39: 214-232.

Gates, Paul W. 1934. The Illinois Central Railroad and its colonization work. Cambridge, Mass.

Gates, Paul Wallace, editor. 1979. Public land policies: management and disposal. New York: Arno Press.

Gates, Paul Wallace. 1936. The Homestead Law in an incongruous land system. American Historical Review 41: 662, July 1936.

Gates, Paul Wallace. 1942. The role of the land speculator in Western development. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 46: 314-333, July 1942.

Gates, Paul Wallace. 1943. The Wisconsin pine lands of Cornell University: a study in land policy and absentee ownership. Ithaca, NY, 1943.

Gates, Paul Wallace. 1945. Frontier landlords and pioneer tenants. Ithaca.

Gates, Paul Wallace. 1954. The railroad land grant legend. Journal of Economic History 14(2): 143-146, Spring 1954.

Gates, Paul Wallace. 1968. History of public land law development. Washington, DC: Public Land Law Review Commission, Nov. 1968. (See especially Chapter 14, "Land Grants for Railroads and Internal Improvements").

George, Henry. 1868. What the railroad will bring us. Overland Monthly 1(4), Oct. 1868.

George, Peter James. 1967. Government subsidies and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Doctoral dissertation. University of Toronto. Republished by Arno Press.

George, Peter James. 1968. Rates of return in railway investment and implications for government subsidization of the Candian Pacific Railway: some preliminary results. Canadian Journal of Economics, Nov. 1968.

Geranios, Nicholas K. 1989. Incinerator firm narrows hunt for Eastern Washington site. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 5, 1989. (ECOS down to Lind, Kahlotus, and Wilbur).

Geranios, Nicholas K. 1991. Study says state should purchase Stampede Pass rail line. Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, Feb. 22, 1991. (Yakima Co. Economic Development Assoc. study).

Gibbons, Glen. 1990. On track with GPS. GPS World: News and Applications of the Global Positioning System, May/June 1990. Reprinted by the BN ARES Dept, Overland Park, Kansas. 9 p. . (Describes the BN GPS-based Advanced Railroad Electronics System (ARES). Data on location and speed of trains is fed into a command and control system via microwave and fiber-optics for computerized traffic planning.

Gibson, Dorothy. 1995. Letters to the editor: readers address Great Northern rail history. St. Paul Pioneer Press, June 15, 1995, reprinted in Transitions, June-July 1995, p. 15. (Corrects Charles Laszewski article of May 26in which he incorrectly says the 40 million acre Northern Pacific Railroad land grant was granted to the Great Northern Railroad; lists the grants that did benefit the Great Northern).

Gibson, Paul. 1981. Burlington Northern: a railroad for the long haul. Forbes, April 27, 1981. (Bressler is quoted as saying "You couldn't put such an array of assets together at any price.")

Gilje, Svein. 1988. BN chairman blasts city on trail sale: flap "blown way out of proportion." Seattle Times, Mar 22, 1988. (Bressler).

Gilje, Svein. 1988. Rail-car business up sharply for BN. Seattle Times, Mar 22, 1988, p.D5.

Gillie, John. 1990. Tax breaks add to timber profits. Tacoma Morning News Tribune, May 27, 1990. Reprinted in Transitions, Mar. 1991, p.18; and May 1992, p.39. (Limited partnerships by Plum Creek, International Paper, and ITT are based on high debt and big returns; pay no tax on natural resource income. PC return was 39 percent in first 11 months; tax rate only 3 percent, on manufacturing only).

Gillis, Robin. 1991. Waste projects put breadbasket at risk. Spokesman Review, May 5, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.48. (Guest editorial against Waste Management landfill and ECOS incinerator).

Gilman, L. The Spokane, Portland, & Seattle Railroad Company. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 14: 14-20.

Glacier National Park archives. Ruhle Library.

Glaspell, Kate Eldridge, "Incidents in the Life of a Pioneer," North Dakota Historical Quarterly, 1941, 187-188.

Glischinski, Steve. Burlington Northern and its heritage. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International. (Pictorial).

Glover, Darrell. 1989. North Village plan gets nod. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar 17, 1989, p.D13. (Glacier Ridge residential community).

Glover, E. S. 1878. View of New Tacoma and Mount Rainier, Puget Sound, Washington Territory [map]: terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad, drawn and published by E.S. Glover. Portland, Or.: E. Glover, c1878 (San Francisco, Cal.: A.L. Bancroft & Co.).

Goble, Paul. Death of the Iron Horse. (Children's book on the Indian derailment of the Union Pacific's train named the Plum Creek).

Godden, Jean. 1988. Burke-Gilman trail didn't make BN's problem list. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 28, 1988.

Goetz, James H. 1979. The feasibility of legal and/or legislative recourse to remedy violations of the provisions of the Northern Pacific land grant. Memo to Rick Applegate, Director, Center for Balanced Transportation. Bozeman, MT: Goetz & Madden, Feb. 5, 1979. 114 p.

Goldsmith, Steven. Former port official put hopes in steel containers. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 14, 1988. (Mic Dinsmore, BN Worldwide VP).

Goodrich, Carter. 1960. Government promotion of American canals and railroads, 1800-1890. NY: Columbia Univ. Press. 382 p.

Gordon, G.A. 1924. Government contests land claims of Northern Pacific Railroad. American Forests and Forest Life 30: 227.

Gorlick, Artgur C. 1989. Born into poverty, he hands out millions. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 15, 1989, p.F5. (Donald North, BN Foundation president).

Gose, Thomas P. 1924. The Walla Walla County Farm Bureau, an organization of farmers, and the Farmers Union, an organization of grain growers of Walla Walla, Washington vs. Northern Pacific Railway Company, the Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company, the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway Company. Brief of complainants T.P. Gose and W.F Crowe .. Scott Z. Henderson .. attorneys for complainants. [n.p.] 1924.

Gough, William. 1991. Restored railway station is envisioned. Seattle Times, Jan. 22, 1991, p.B3. (Proposal to use federal funds to restore 1906 King Street Station).

Gradinsky, Julius. 1962. Transcontinental railway strategy, 1869-1893: a study of businessmen. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 443 p.

Graham, Howard J. 1968. Everyman's Constitution. Madison. (Includes discussion of judicial decisions by Field and Sawyer, which ruled in favor of corporations as persons protected under due proces of law).

Graham, Kenneth R. 1980. Rail-based holding companies: a view of some indicators of strategy, management change, and financial performance. Transportation Journal, Summer 1980, p.73-77.

Graves, H.S. 1920. The Northern Pacific Railway or the nation -- which? Journal of Forestry 18: 676-680 (July 1920).

Great Falls Tribune. 1977. BN, Forest Service viewing land swap. Great Falls Tribune, Apr. 15, 1977.

Great Falls Tribune. 1978. BN requesting logging road in wilderness. Great Falls Tribune, Aug. 15, 1978.

Great Northern Railway Co. Papers. Part 1, 1862-1922. Series A: Board of Directors minutes and corporate histories. Series B: labor. Series C: settlement and development. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1985. (From Minnesota Historical Society collection).

Great Northern Railway Company. 1929. Dedication and opening of the new Cascade Tunnel, a monument to James J. Hill. Addresses delivered during the coast to coast radio broadcasting program and at the banquet in the construction camp, Scenic, Washington, January 12, 1929. [St. Paul? Minn., 1929].

Great Northern, Northern Pacific, Burlington, and Spokane, Portland, & Seattle. 1961. Consolidation: key to transportation progress. St. Paul? [GN Papers, 2, 20].

Great Northern. 1913. Taxation of railroad property in the state of Washington .. [by] Great Northern Railway Company, Northern Pacific Railway Company, Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. [n.p., 1913?].

Great Northern. 1928. Public interest in unification; a statement by Great Northern Railway Company [and] Northern Pacific Railway Company. [St. Paul, 1928?]. (Justifies merger).

Great Northern. Great Northern Goat.

Green, Alan W., Renee A. O'Brien, and James C. Schaefer. 1985. Montana timber. Ogden, UT: U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. (Private lands are being overcut; public lands unlikely to make up for a shortage).

Green, R. 1985. The Northern Pacific Railway. Seattle: Northwest Shoreline.

Green, Richard. 1985. The Northern Pacific Railway of McGee and Nixon: classic photographs of equipment and environment during the 1930-1955 period, by Richard Green. Seattle, WA: Northwest Short Line, c1985.

Green, Thomas L. 1891. Railroad stock-watering. Political Science Quarterly 6: 474-492.

Greenberg, Dolores. 1980. Financiers and railroads...

Greenberg, Dolores. articles in Business History...

Greene, Sheldon. 1976. Promised Land: A Contemporary Critique of Distribution of Public Land by the United States, Ecology Law Quarterly 1976, 5: 707-751.

Greene, Sheldon; David Kirkpatrick; David M. Madway; and Richard Pearl. 1975. Petition for Return of Railroad Lands. Pages 12-16 in: The People's Land: A Reader on Land Reform in the United States, edited by Peter Barnes. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1975. (Filed in 1972 as an administrative complaint to the Secretary of the Interior; his reply was filed on August 31, 1972, "on behalf of the Southern Pacific Transportation and Southern Pacific Land Company")

Greever, William S. 1951. A comparison of railroad land-grant policies. Agricultural History 25: 83-90, April 1951.

Greever, William S. 1954. Arid domain; the Santa Fe Railway and its western land grant. Stanford [Calif.] Stanford University Press [1954].

Greever, William S. Two Arizona lieu land exchanges. Pacific Historical Review 19:137-149.

Grinnell. The Fighting Cheyenne.

Grodinsky, Julius. 1957. Jay Gould, his business career, 1867-1892. Philadelphia. Republished by Arno Press.

Grodinsky, Julius. 1962. Transcontinental railway strategy: 1869-1893: a study of businessmen. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Grossman, Richard L. and Frank T. Adams. 1993. Taking care of business: citizenship and the charter of incorporation. Cambridge, MA: Charter, Ink, January 1993. 32 p. (Traces the history of corporations, from the limited charters of the 19th century to the unlimited legal power they possess today. Because of the central role of railroads in the development of the modern corporation, this booklet includes discussion of court decisions involving land grant railroads, such as Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific, U.S. Supreme Court, 1886, which gave corporations the same rights as individuals under the Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment).

Grunbaum, Rami. 1990. Burlington Environmental on block: Sabey could cash out in big way on his flourishing 1986 acquisition. Puget Sound Business Journal, April 9, 1990.

Grunbaum, Rami. 1992. Burlington may sell its Plum Creek Timber stake to Bass. Puget Sound Business Journal, Oct. 2-Oct. 8, 1992. (See also Virgin, Oct. 3, 1992).

Guptill, Albert Brewer. 1892. A ramble in wonderland, being a description of the marvelous region traversed by the Northern Pacific Railroad, Illustratd from photos by Haynes. St. Paul: Northern Pacific Railroad, 1892.

Haas. The Report of Herr Haas. Berlin, Nov. 30, 1871. Published in the New York Tribune and republished in Penny-an-Acre Empire in the West, by Edgar I. Stewart. (Written by a Prussian government railroad director for Berlin capitalists interested in investing in the Northern Pacific. Haas reported that the NP couldn't pay interest on its bonds, and that the investment was not safe. The report goes into some detail on the finances of the railroad and the lands it was granted and what the sale of them would raise. The report is followed by a Sept. 27, 1873 rebuttal from NP President G.W. Cass, in which he claims that the sale of lands is more than sufficient to pay off the bonds).

Hadley, Arthur Twining. 1968. Railroad transportation, its history and its laws. New York, N.Y.: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1968.

Hadley, Jane. 1988. Two strong competitors in race to build hazardous waste burner. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 31, 1988. (ECOS & Rabanco).

Hage, Dave and John J. Oslund. 1988. Collision course: unions, railroads get ready for standoff over crew reductions. Seattle Times, July 19, 1988.

Hagenbloom, Ari and Olive. 1976. A history of the ICC. NY: WW Norton & Co.

Hair, Dwight. 1958. Historical forestry statistics of the United States. USDA Forest Service Stat. Bull. No. 228. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service.

Hall, Ridgeway M. Jr. 1975. Straightening out the rails. Environment 17(6): 16-20, Sept. 1975.

Halliday, Samuel Dumont. 1905. History of the agricultural college land grant act of July 2, 1862. Devoted largely to the history of the "land scrip" which under that grant was allotted to the State of New York and afterwards given to Cornell University. Ithaca, N. Y., Ithaca Democrat Press, 1905. (Ezra Cornell; Cornell University "in lieu" land in Wisconsin was later sold to Weyerhaeuser).

Hamburg, James Frederic. 1969. The influence of railroads upon the processes and patterns of settlement in South Dakota. Doctoral dissertation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. Republished by Arno Press in 1981.

Hamilton, Garrison W. 1936. Harry Prater and Floyd Prater .. respondents, and Inland Empire Dairy Association .. intervenor-respondent, vs. the Department of Public Service of the state of Washington appellants, and Washington Motor Freight Association intervenor, and Northern Pacific Railway Company intervenors. No. 26251. Brief of appellants. Appeal from the judgment of the Superior Court for Spokane County Honorable William A. Huneke, judge. G.W. Hamilton, attorney general; Don Cary Smith, assistant attorney general; Frederick J. Lordan, Will M. Derig, attorneys, attorneys for the appellants. Olympia [State Printing Plant, 1936?].

Hamilton, Martha. 1988. Railroad owner to spin off its resources arm. Washington Post, June 3, 1988, p.G1.

Haney, Lewis H. 1910. A Congressional history of railways in the United States. Madison, 1910. A.M. Kelley, 1968. 2 vols in one.

Haney, Lewis. 1906. A congressional history of railways to 1850. Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin 3(2).

Hanford, Cornelius Holgate. The orphan railroad and the rams horn right of way. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 14: 83-99.

Hanson, Joseph H. 1883. Grand opening of the Northern Pacific railway. Celebration at St. Paul, Minnesota. The eastern terminus. September 3rd, 1883. Issued by order of the city of St. Paul. Comp by J. H. Hanson. St. Paul, Brown & Treacy [1883].

Harney, Thomas Porter. 1956. Charles Barstow Wright, 1822-1898, a builder of the Northern Pacific Railroad and of the city of Tacoma, Washington. [Tacoma?] 1956.

Harney, Thomas. 1956. Charles Barstown Wright, 1822-1898, a builder of the Northern Pacific Railroad and City of Tacoma.

Harnsberger, John L. 1956. Jay Cooke and Minnesota: the formative years of the Northern Pacific Railroad, 1868-1873. Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Republished by Arno Press in 1981.

Harnsberger, John Lewis. 1981. Jay Cooke and Minnesota: the formative years of the Northern Pacific Railroad, 1868-1873, John L. Harnsberger. New York: Arno Press, 1981.

Harrell, Debera Carlton. 1988. BN and city agree on plan for extending trail. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sept 15, 1988. (Burke Gilman).

Harrell, Debera Carlton. 1989. Extension of trail is agreed on. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 25, 1989. (Burke-Gilman Trail).

Harris, Robert G. 1977. Rationalizing the rail freight industry: a case study in institutional failure and proposals for reform. Sloan Working Paper 7705. University of California, Berkeley, Dept. of Economics, Sept. 1977.

Harris, Robert G. 1980. Economic analysis of light density rail lines. Logistics and transportation Review 16: 3-29 (Jan. 1980). (Says most abandonments from 1920 to 1976 were accepted by shippers and local governments).

Harris, Robert G. and Clifford Winston. The potential benefits of rail mergers. Review of Economics and Statistics.

Hassler, Charles W. 1876. Railroad rings and their relation to the railroad question in this country. New York.

Hatch, Walter. 1987. "Political white lie" by Gardner. Seattle Times, July 1, 1987. p. A1.

Hatch, Walter. 1987. The private man behind those public smiles: Booth Gardner grew up with lots of money but no roots. Pacific Magazine (Seattle Times/Seattle Post-Intelligencer), p.10-18, July 26, 1987.

Hay, William W. 1982. Railroad engineering. 2nd edition. NY: John Wiley & Sons. (The first two chapters have basic information on percentages of passenger and freight traffic 1950-1978, municipal rapid transit systems, capital requirements of railroads 1948-1980, and railroad commodities by volume and revenues).

Hayes, Janice. 1988. BN activates subsidiary in labor dispute. Seattle Times, Mar. 15, 1988. (Winona Bridge not subject to BN labor contracts).

Hayes, Thomas C. 1989. Burlington Resources plans sale: partnership to get 88% of timber unit. New York Times, Apr. 14, 1989, P.C4(N), P.D4(L).

Haynes, Frank Jay. 1884. Northern Pacific, [photographed and published by F. Jay Haynes]. Fargo, Dakota: F.J. Haynes, c1884.

Hazardous Materials Intelligence Report. 1989. Burlington Environmental makes acquisitions to expand into hazardous materials management field. HMIR, Jan. 13, 1989, p.7. (Buys Crowley).

Hazardous Materials Intelligence Report. 1989. Second round of technical assistance grants awarded to citizens' groups in communities near NPL sites. HMIR, Jan. 13, 1989, p.5. (Awarded to Flathead Lake Protection Association, for the BN Superfund site at Somers, Montana).

Hazardous Materials Intelligence Report. 1992. Burlington Environmental receives TSCA permit for technology to decontaminate PCBs. HMIR, Jan 3 1992, p.6. (Five-year permit for its mobile units for decontaminating pipeline compressed air systems and parts.

Hazmat World. 1990. Hazmat World, Aug. 1990, p.26. (Chempro agrees to conduct site assessment and groundwater study of Seattle Pier 91 property to comply with RCRA).

Healy, Tim. 1988. BN unit buys hazardous-waste firm. Seattle Times, Mar. 3, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.21. (Glacier Park buys control of Chempro from Sabey).

Healy, Tim. 1991. Chempro gets final OKs on cleanup of waste plant. Seattle Times, Sept., 10, 1991, p.D3. (Georgetown site).

Heberlein, Greg. 1989. Burlington Resources is value waiting to happen, analysts say. Seattle Times, Jan. 16, 1989.

Heberlein, Greg. 1989. Pennzoil takes big stake in Burlington Resources. Seattle Times, Feb. 6, 1989, p.F7.

Heberlein, Greg. 1993. Dow ends six-week ride into records; Northwest stock community welcomes two new members. June 12, 1993, p.D1. (Burlington Coal Seam Gas Royalty Trust established "as a financial conduit of natural gas from a New Mexico field to Meridian [Oil]. Investors get a quarterly payout plus a tax credit").

Heberlein, Greg. 1996. Avoid annual metings that are in-Delhi-able. Seattle Times, Mar. 24, 1996, p. E1, E7. ("Although the company was well-run, you never saw that at a Burlington Northern meeting when Dick Bressler was at the controls. The iron-fisted Bressler was the master of the One-Minute Meeting. Actually, his record was something like seven minutes. A meeting that ran 20 minutes easily was two years' worth. Bressler believed Burlington Northern was not a consumer commodity that you'd find at the grocery store, so annual meetings were a legal necessity and nothing else.").

Heberlein, Greg. BN announces plan to restructure. Seattle Times, June 2, 1988. (BR spinoff).

Hedges, James Blaine. 1924. The development of transportation in the Pacific Northwest, 1860-1893, as reflected in the career of Henry Villard. PhD. dissertation. Cambridge: Harvard Univ.

Hedges, James Blaine. 1926. The colonization work of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 13: 314-321, Dec. 1926.

Hedges, James Blaine. 1928-1929. Promotion of immigration to the Pacific Northwest by the railroads. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 15: 183-203.

Hedges, James Blaine. 1930. Henry Villard and the railways of the Northwest. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. Republished by Russell and Russell, New York, in 1967. 224 p.

Hedges, James Blaine. 1934. The federal railway land subsidy policy of Canada. Harvard University Press. 151 p.

Hedges, James Blaine. 1939. Building the Candaian West: the land and colonization policies of the Canadian Pacific Railway. New York.

Hedron, Paul L., editor. The great Sioux war 1876-77.

Heidelmark, William J. et al. 1983. Taxation of railroads, other transportation companies, and other businesses: a survey of state law: summary report / William Heidelmark, Sylvia Adams, Michael Chiffolo. Albany, N.Y.: State Board of Equalizaton and Assessment, State of New York, [1983].

Helena Daily Herald. 1888. Proceedings relating to the Northern Pacific Railroad Company's claim to the mineral lands of Montana. 27 p. (Montana Moneral Lands Convention; miners vs. Northern Pacific obtaining patents on grant lands).

Henderson, Dean. 1993. Burlington Northern: on the wrong track. Multinational Monitor 14(3): 26-30, Mar. 1993. (Discusses labor, environmental, social, and corporate issues; contains several factual errors).

Henry, Robert S. 1945. The railroad land grant legend in American history texts. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 32(2): 171-194, Sept. 1945. (Henry was employed by the Association of American Railroads. Discussion by Ellis, Riegel, Shannon, Kirkland, Morgan, followed in issues 32(4), 33(1), and 33(3), and by Gates in Journal of Economic History, Spring 1954. Henry's article and its critics were reprinted in Carstensen, 1963).

Herndon, Grace. 1991. Cut & run: saying goodbye to the last great forests in the West. Telluride, CO: Western Eye Press.

Hibbard, Benjamin Horace. 1924, 1939. A history of the public land policies. NY: Peter Smith. Republished by University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, in 1965.

Hidy, Ralph W., Frank Ernest Hill, and Allan Nevins. 1963. Timber and men: the Weyerhaeuser story. New York: The Macmillan Co. (Details Northern Pacific land sales to Weyerhaeuser companies).

Hidy, Ralph W., Muriel E. Hidy, and Roy V. Scott, with Don L. Hofsommer. 1988. The Great Northern Railway: a history. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. (There is also a two-volume manuscript originally intended for publication.)

Higgins, Mark. 1990. Commuter rail line draws interest: Burlington Northern proposes using its tracks in Auburn run. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 27, 1991.

Higgins, Mark. 1991. Commuter rail service is "on track." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 1, 1991, p.A1,A8. (Seattle Metro, local officials, and BN join in lobbying Congress for light rail transit funds, with estimated cost rising from $36 to $100 million).

Higgins, Mark. 1992. Eastside train plan in trouble. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 28, 1992. (Study shows a Bellevue to Renton commuter train would cost $104 million for stations, engines, coaches, and BN track upgrade. Another $5 million per year would be needed for operation and maintenance. Existing tracks are not located at Boeing-Renton and downtown Bellevue, where demand for service would be highest).

Higgins, Mark. 1992. Seattle-Everett commuter train service proposed. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 30, 1992. (BN is drafting proposal as part of a $9 billion publicly-funded transit package).

Highsmith, R.M. Jr. 1955. Resources and the regional economy. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 46: 25-29, Jan. 1955.

Hightower, Jim. 1978. Hard tomatoes, hard times,: the original Hightower report, unexpurgated, of the agribusiness Accountability Project on the failure of America's land grant college complex and selected additional views of the problems and prospects of American agriculture in the late seventies / forewords by Harry M. Scoble and James Abourezk. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Pub. Co., c1978.

Hill, James Jerome, Charles R. Flint, James H. Bridge, S.C.T. Dodd, and Francis B. Thurber. 1902. The trust: its book, being a presentation of the several aspects of the latest form of industrial evolution. Edited by James H. Bridge. New York.

Hill, James Jerome. 1902. Address to the Illinois Manufacturer's Association, Chicago, June 4, 1902. [n.p., 1902?].

Hill, James Jerome. 1905. The future of our Oriental trade. World's Work 10: 6465-6467.

Hill, James Jerome. 1910. A lost opportunity on the Pacific. World's Work 19: 12481-12503. (Attempts to connect rail lines with Japanese steamship lines and his own Great Northern Steamship Co., organized in 1900, especially to sell cotton, lumber and wheat. See Best, 1973; and Lamb, 1943).

Hill, James Jerome. 1910. Highways of progress. New York, Doubleday, Page & Company, 1910, 1912.

Hill, James Jerome. 1910. The Great Northern and the Northwest. St. Paul: The GN.

Hill, James Jerome. Hill Farm Facts.

Hill, James Jerome. The James J. Hill papers. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America. Personal and Private Series, 1874, 1877-1916.

Hill, James Jerome. The nation's future. (30-page pamphlet regarding population and agricultural production).

Hill, Louis W. Louis W. Hill papers. [JJH].

Hines, Walker Downer. 1974. War history of American railroads. [Englewood Cliffs, N.J.]: J.S. Oser, 1974.

Hofsommer, Don L. 1976. Railroads of the trans-Mississippi West: a selected bibliography of books. Plainview, TX: Llano Estecado Museum. 92 p.

Hofsommer, Don L. 1986. The Southern Pacific, 1901-1985. College Station, TX.

Hofsommer, Don L. 1988. Hill's dream realized: the Burlington Northern's eight-decade gestation. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 79(4): 138-146, October 1988.

Holbrook, Stewart H. 1947. The story of American railroads. New York: Crown Publishers.

Holbrook, Stewart. 1953. The age of moguls: the story of the robber barons and the great tycoons. NY: Doubleday. NY: Harmony Books, 1985. 373 p. . (Good summary of Hill/Harriman battles).

Holbrook, Stewart. 1955. James J. Hill: a great life in brief. NY: Alfred A. Knopf. Republished in 1967. 205 p.

Holt, Gordy. 1991. Mine allowed to stay open despite pollution that seeps into streams. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 26, 1991. (Richard Schroeder-Sunset Quarries' Squak Mt. mine site leased from Meridian Aggregates).

Hoolcomb, Mary C. et al. 1987. Transportation energy data book: edition 9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Hopkins, Jack. 1990. Charges in toxic dumping. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 18, 1990. (Chempro and John Charles Nelson of John's AAA Waste Oil of Sumner).

Hopkins, Jack. 1991. Man pleads guilty to theft charges in dumping scam. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 29, 1991, P.B3. (court papers show Chempro accepted payment from Nelson).

Horning, John. BM coal swap called a gross inequity and a water threat. High Country News, Feb. 11, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.51. (Meridian Minerals wants to swap 3674 acres of BLM land for 9873 acres of recreational lands along Big Hole and Madison Rivers. Checkerboard ownership in Bull Mountains prevents development of coal; Meridian has proposed a 3-million-ton per-year mine. Bull Mountains Landowners Association president Pete Tulley says BLM valued the coal at 1.7 cents per ton when prices are $1.60. BLM study says devaluation is because coal couldn't be developed for 20 to 40 years; others say Meridian may actually want to sell subsurface rights. BLM EIS says mine impacts would be minimal. Montana State Dept. of Lands' Bonnie Lovelace has concerns regarding new longwall mining effects on springs and water supplies. Second EIS due Fall 1991).

Horton, Dexter. 1877. In Congress: the people of Washington Territory vs. the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. Claim. The restoration of the public lands to settlement. Seattle, Intelligencer Printing Office, 1877.

Hotchkiss, George W. 1898. History of the lumber and forest industry of the Northwest. Chicago: George W. Hotchkiss & Co.

Howard, Tom. 1991. Mining firm pulls leases of protestor. Billings Gazette, May 16, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.50. (Meridian against ranchers grazing Bull Mountains; Sumitomo negotiating with Meridian for coal. Bull Mountains Landowners Association president Pete Tulley, a member of Northern Plains Resource Council, leased land from Glacier Park. BLM recently approved coal-for-land exchange to consolidate checkerboards with Meridian; see also John Horning, Feb. 11, 1991).

Hown, Cloice R. 1924. Development of lumber industry of West Coast. Timberman 25: 194-198, August 1924.

Hoxie, Frederick. Parading through history. (Includes short discussion of Crow Indians and the Northern Pacific Railroad).

Hubbard, Elbert, 1856-1915. Little journeys to the homes of great business men, by Elbert Hubbard. East Aurora, N.Y., The Roycrofters, 1909. (Includes anecdotes of Robert Owen, James Oliver, Stephen Girard, Rochschiold, Armour, Astor, Peter Cooper, Carnegie, George Peabody, Alexander Stewart, and J.J. Hill).

Humann, Stanley. 1997. Swap: ownership of land in qustion upheld by U.S. Supreme Court. Letter to editor, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 1997. (Former manager of University of Washington Pack Forest claims that the U.S. Congress ruled that the Northern Pacific fulfilled its obligations and entitlement to the railroad land grants, and that a proposed Plum Creek Timber land exchange should therefore be carried out).

Huneke, William F. 1985. The heavy hand: the government and the Union Pacific, 1862- 1898. New York: Garland Pub., 1985.

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Hyde, John. 1886. Wonderland; or, Alaska and the inland passage, by Lieut Frederick Schwatka. With a description of the country traversed by the Northern Pacific railroad, by John Hyde. [Chicago, Rand, McNally & co., printers] c1886.

Hyde, John. 1888. Wonderland: or, The Pacific Northwest and Alaska: with a description of the country traversed by the Northern Pacific Railroad, by John Hyde. Chicago: Rand McNally, c1888.

Hyde, John. 1889. Northern Pacific tour: the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, with a description of the country traversed by the Northern Pacific Railroad, by John Hyde. St. Paul: W. C. Riley, 1889.

Ichioka, Yuji. 1980. Japanese immigrant labor contractors and the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern railroad companies. Labor History 21: 325-350. (Hired after the anti-Chinese movement of the 1880s and the destruction of the American Railway Union in the Pullman strike of 1894).

In Congress: the people of Washington Territory vs. the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. Claim: the restoration of the public lands to settlement; and the recognition of the claim of the Seattle & Walla Walla Railroad Company in the plan of readjustment of the grant of the restored lands.

Independent Record. 1975. State says creek harmed by Gallatin logging operation. Independent Record, Oct. 9, 1975. (Cited in Applegate, 1979, n. 209: Yellowstone Pine cut on BN and USFS land in the Taylor Fork of the Gallatin).

Irwin, Leonard Bertram. 1939. Pacific railways and nationalism in the Canadian-American Northwest, 1845-1873. New York, Greenwood Press, 1968 [c1939].

Isch, Flora Mae Bellefleur. 1950. The importance of railroads in the development of northwestern Montana. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 41:19-29, Jan. 1950.

Itzkoff, Donald M. 1985. Off the track: the decline of the intercity passenger train in the United States. Greenwood Press.

Iverson, Doug. 1995. BN rail may put brakes on 350 jobs in St. Paul. St. Paul Pioneer Press, June 10, 1995, reprinted in Transitions, June-July 1995, p. 17. (Restructuring may cost 2,800 administrative and system support jobs nationwide).

Iwasaki, John. 1988. Another railroad land dispute: Skagit County town protests park rent boost. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 19, 1988. (Burlington city park rent boosted by BN).

James, Edmund Janes. 1910. The origin of the land grant act of 1862 (the so-called Morrill act) and some account of its author, Jonathan B. Turner. Urbana-Champaign, University Press [c1910].

Jamieson, Sean. 1990. BN invests millions in branch line: $8.2 million project serves B.C. smelter. Spokesman Review, July 29, 1990, p.E1,E4. (105 mile branch just finished; BN has 10-year contract with Cominco to haul ore to Trail, BC zinc and lead refinery. The ore comes from the Red Dog in NW Alaska by barge to Vancouver).

Jenks, Leland. 1944. Railroads as an economic force in American development. Journal of Economic History 4(1): 1-20.

Jensen, Derrick, George Draffan, and John Osborn. 1995. Railroads and clearcuts: legacy of Congress's 1864 Northern Pacific Railroad land grant. Spokane, WA: Inland Empire Public Lands Council and Keokee Company Publishng, 1995. 198 p.

Jensen, Vernon H. 1945. Lumber and labor. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc.

Jermane, W.E. 1907. Weyerhaeuser in with Hill on lumber: timberman is director of the Great Northern, and railroad magnate is owner of large forests; heads of the newly-formed trust will soon control both the raw and the finished products. Seattle Daily Times, Sept. 3, 1907. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1992, p. 56-57.

Johnson, Arthur M. and Barry E. Supple. Boston capitalists and Western railroads. Harvard University Press.

Johnson, Edwin F. 1854. Railroads to the Pacific: northern route. NY: Railroad Journal Printing Office.

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Jonasson, Jonas Adalsteinn. They rode the trains: railroad passenger traffic and regional reaction. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 52: 41-49.

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Jones, Peter d'A., editor. 1968. The Robber Barons Revisited. Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath & Co. (Essays from various points of view).

Jones, R.M. 1940. Land grant railroad rates. Geo Wash L Rev 8: 930-947, Apr. 1940. (Southern Pacific v. U.S., 59 Sup. Ct. 923).

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Jones, Steve. 1981. Road built in wilderness study area: groups go to court over BN construction. Missoulian, Dec. 5, 1981. Reprinted in Transitions, May 1992, p.36-37. (BN building 16.8-mile road through Buck and Jack Creeks on Beaverhead and Gallatin National Forests, including through Buck Creek RRE II area; conservationsists appeal court decision granting easements. Case may set national precedent on easements under RARE II and the Alaska Lands Act. BN claims an implied easement under the Northern Pacific Railroad land grant).

Josephson, Matthew. 1934. The robber barons: the great American capitalists 1861-1901. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. 474 p.

Julian, George Washington. 1879. Atlantic Monthly 43: 325-337.

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Keeler, Theodore E. 1983. Railroads, freight, and public policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. 180 p. (Good history of railroad regulation, monopoly, deregulation, subsidy, and labor).

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Kendall, Edward P. 1896. Gilman's addition to the city of Seattle [map]: showing ideal sketch for future dock improvements of Union Pacific, Northern Pacific and Great Northern Railways on water-fronts owned by them at Salmon Bay and Smith's Cove, drawn by Ed. P. Kendall. Seattle, Wash.: New England Land Co., [1896?].

Kennan, G. The Psychology of Mr. Roosevelt. (In his "Misrepresentation in Railroad Affairs." Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Co. 1916.)

Kennan, George. 1916. Misrepresentation in railroad affairs. Republished by Arno Press.

Kennan, George. 1922. E.H. Harriman. 2 vols. Republished by Arno Press.

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Kerr, K. Austin. 1967. Decision for federal control: Wilson, McAdoo, and the railroads, 1917. Journal of American History LIV(3): 550-560, Dec. 1967. (Nationalization of the railroads during World War I).

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Klein, Maury. 1987. Union Pacific: the birth, 1862-1893.

Klein, Maury. 1990. Union Pacific: the rebirth, 1894-1969.

Klein, Maury. 1994. Unfinished business: the railroad in American life. University of Rhode Island Press.

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Laceky, Tom. 1991. Water is issue beneath Montana mining battle. Seattle Times/Post-Intelligencer. (Meridian Minerals plans for longwall underground coal mine in the Bull Mountains south of Roundup, Montana, where Meridian land holdings were consolidated with a BLM land swap).

Lacitis, Erik. 1988. History lesson: greed just isn't in BN's line - or is it? Seattle Times, Feb 11, 1988. (Robert Ficken quoted).

Lacitis, Erik. 1988. Hush hush: railroad's silence on trail sale is lousy PR. Seattle Times, Feb 19, 1988.

Lalonde, James E. 1988. BN broke promises, says suit: unwanted workers sent to jobs in 'rubber room.' Seattle Times, Dec. 5, 1988. (BN tax agent George Landis).

Lalonde, James E. 1988. BN split will hit state charities, arts hard: as empire's divisions spread across U.S., so will its philanthropy. Seattle Times, Dec 23, 1988. (Ranks Seattle-area corporate givers, with BN as number 2).

Lalonde, James E. 1988. BN trading sparks SEC inquiry. Seattle Times, Nov 23, 1988, p.E9. (Re insider trading).

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Lane, Bob. 1993. Commuter train takes a trial run: BN impresses some officals with plan for Tacoma-to-Everett service. Seattle Times, Mar. [?], 1993, p.B1-B2. (Proposed system would cost the public $250 million, part of a proposed $9 billion Puget Sound regional transit system).

Lane, Polly. 1989. Burlington Resources crafts takeover defense. Seattle Times, Feb. 24, 1989. (Against Pennzoil).

Lane, Polly. 1989. Defense against Pennzoil set. Seattle Times, Feb. 23, 1989. (BR authorizes lawsuit and changes by-laws).

Lane, Polly. 1990. Burlington chairman named. Seattle Times, Oct. 11, 1990. (O'Leary).

Lane, Polly. 1992. Big land acquisition boosts Trillium: Glacier Park completes large property liquidation in deal with Bellingham firm. Seattle Times, June 18, 1992. (75 properties and 25 rail-served industrial parks for $50 million+. In September 1991, Trillium bought other Glacier Park properties for $50 million, including 232 parcels in the mountain states; 53 have already been resold. See also Tapperson, 1992).

Larrabee, William. 1893. The railroad question. Chicago.

Larson, Henrietta M. Jay Cooke: private banker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Larson, John Lauritz. 1984. Bonds of enterprise: John Murray Forbes and western development in America's railway age / by John Lauritz Larson ; foreword by Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. Boston, Mass.: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University ; Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press, c1984. 257 p. (The history of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy).

Laszewski, Charles. 1995. Hill'[s land deals unlawful, wnvironmentalists say: group charges acres sold to timber interests led to clearcut forests. St. Paul Pioneer Press, May 26, 1995, reprinted in Transitions, June-July 1995, p. 12. (Reviews the Inland Empire Public Lands Council's book "Railroads & Clearcuts"; incorrectly says 40 million acre Northern Pacific Railroad land grant was granted to the Great Northern Railroad; corrected by Dorothy Gibson letter of June 15).

Latham, Earl. 1959. The politics of railroad coordination 1933-1936. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1959.

Laut, Agnes C. 1936. The romance of the rails: the story of American railroads. NY: Tudor Publishing. (Quaint but detailed. Chapters on land grants, on scandals, and on Hill. Cites no sources).

Lavender, David. 1970. The Great persuader. Garden City NY: Doubleday. (Biography of Colis P. Huntington).

Le Duc, Thomas. 1950. The Disposal of the Public Domain on the Trans-Mississippi Plains: Some Opportunities for Investigation. Agricultural History. July 1950, 24(3): 199-204.

Lentz.

Leonard, William Norris. 1946. Railroad consolidation under the Transportation Act of 1920. NY.

Leovy, Jill. 1991. Leaking silt stirs up investigation. Seattle Times, Apr. 27, 1991, p.C10. (Pacific Coast Coal's John Henry Mine).

Levin, Richard C. 1981. Regulation, barriers to exit, and railroad investment behavior. Pages 181-224 in: Studies in Public Regulation, edited by Gary Fromm. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.

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Lewis, Oscar. 1938. The big four. Alfred A. Knopf.

Lewis, Peter. 1992. Seattle sues over cost for Midway landfill cleanup. Seattle Times, May 14, 1992. (The 21 hazardous waste clean-up defendents include BE. Suit does not allege that substances were dumped illegally. See also Miletich, May 14, 1992).

Lewis, Sol H. A history of the railroads in Washington. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 3: 186-197.

Lewty, Peter J. 1987. To the Columbia gateway: the Oregon Railway and the Northern Pacific, 1879-1884. Pullman: Washington State University Press. 202 p. (Covers the Harriman period of NP).

Lewty, Peter J.. 1987. To the Columbia gateway: the Oregon Railway and the Northern Pacific, 1879-1884, Peter J. Lewty. Pullman, Wash.: Washington State University Press, 1987.

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Lien, Carsten. 1991. Olympic battleground: the power politics of timber preservation. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. 434 p. (Describes how the Northern Pacific helped write, and benefitted from, the Rainier National Park Act; pages 9-15. Parts reprinted in transitions, July 1992, p.9).

Lillard. The Great Forest.

Lilly, Dick. 1988. Royer angered by industrialist's purchase of trail. Seattle Times, Feb. 9, 1988.

Lincoln and the railroads. ICC Practitioners Journal 11: 409-411, Feb. 1944.

Lindler, Bert. 1989. Environmentalists: timber industry harms economies. Great Falls (Montana) Tribune, Dec. 2, 1989. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1992, p. 100-101. (John Osborn of the Inland Empire Public Lands Council urges Plum Creek and Burlington Northern obligations arising from Northern Pacific Railroad land grant).

Locklin, D. Philip. 1974. Economics of transporttion. 6th edition. Homewood, IL: Richard Irwin.

Long, James. 1993. Of grants and greed. The Oregonian (Portland), May 23, 1993, p.A1,A16-A17. Reprinted in Transitions, Dec. 1993, p.10-17; and in Forest History Today, 1995, p. 26-30. The article received the 1994 John M. Collier Award for Forest History Journalism. ("How 19th century financiers made off with the biggest transfer of public lands into private hands in U.S. history." Discusses the effects of the Northern Pacific land grant on Northwest history and environment. Covers the history of the NP grant, the revestment of the O&C grant, the 1920-1940s Congressional investigation and lawsuit against NP, the 1983 Citizens Committee lawsuit, South Dakota Representative and Senator Byron Dorgan's attempts to preserve railroad service, the Congressional Research Service's Pam Baldwin report, and the corporate spinoffs of the 1980s and 1990s. The Oregonian and Transitions versions include a map and a detailed historical timeline).

Long, Katherine. 1991. 1988 environmental law prompts voluntary cleanups. Seattle Times, Mar. 26, 1991, p.E1-E2. (Model Toxic Cleanup Act and BN sites around Washington state).

Long, Katherine. 1991. Skykomish unruffled by diesel fuel pond: railroad waste sits underground. Seattle Times, Mar. 26, 1991, p.E1-E2.

Los Angeles Times. 1988. Burlington Resources buys interest in developer. Los Angeles Times, June 8, 1988, sec.IV, p.22. (New Mexico & Arizona Land Co.).

Lowe, Marcia D. 1990. Alternatives to the automobile: transport for livable cities. Wolrdwatch Paper 98. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, October 1990. 49 p. (Compares energy intensity of, and pollution from, rail, bus, and autos; cpmares alternatives to autos available in major world cities; briefly reviews light rail systems being developed).

Lowe, Marcia D. 1993. Rediscovering rail. Worldwatch Paper No. 118. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute. (Excerpted in: State of the World 1993, p. 120-138, New York: Norton).

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Macfarlane, Robert Stetson. 1954. Henry Villard and the Northern Pacific. New York: Newcomen Society in North America, 1954.

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Machalaba, Daniel. 1989. Spirit of economic cooperation spreads among fiercly independent railroads. Wall Street Journal, Dec. 20, 1989, p.B2(W), p.A6(E).

Machalaba, Daniel. 1993. Learning curve: Burlington Northern shows risks of hiring an outsider as CEO: some of Grinstein's decisions reflect scant knowledge of the railroad business; at long last, signs of success. Wall Street Journal, Apr. 6, 1993, p.A1,A6. (See also Berman and Khalaf, 1993).

Machalaba, Daniel. 1995. BBoxcar battle: railroads see promise in a freight revival that many towns fear: railing against new routes, residents say they live on noisy side of tracks: playing traffijam videos. Wall Street Journal, May 9, 1997, p. A1, A6.

Machalaba, Daniel. 1995. Burlington Northern's offer to acquire Santa Fe is approved by shareholders. Wall Street Journal, Feb. 8, 1995, p.A4. ($4 billion; to create Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corp.; requires ICC approval).

Mack, Toni. 1991. Blood from turnips. Forbes 147(11): 338-339, May 27, 1991. (Profile of Burlington Resources' Don Clayton; Meridian Oil helped increase BR profits by 40 percent in 1990; Meridan's natural gas reserves have increased from 3.6 to 5.4 trillion cubic feet).

Maier, Scott and Don Fair. 1988. Royer rejects horse-trade offer on Burke-Gilman. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 9, 1988.

Maier, Scott. 1988. Bike trail spat may be settled. seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 9, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Maier, Scott. 1988. BN and city reach accord on trail plan. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 18, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Maier, Scott. 1988. BN's track removal on canal right of way stirs new furor. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 26, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Maier, Scott. 1988. Burke-Gilman Trail right-of-way sale is off track, protesters say. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 4, 1988.

Maier, Scott. 1988. Waterfront boulevard: a BN hitch? Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb 20, 1988. (Seattle, ICC, and abandonment process).

Maier, Scott. 1990. County buys forests for 'I-90 Greenway". Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 8, 1990. (Glacier Park gets $2.9 million from King Co. for 500 acres bordering Squak Mt. State Park).

Maier, Scott. Railroad apologizes - sort of. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb 25, 1988.

Malone, Michael P. 1996. James J. Hill: Empire Builder of the Northwest. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. (Malone is president of Montana State University in Bozeman).

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Malone, Michael P., Richard B. Roeder, and William L. Lang. 1991. Montana: a history of two centuries. Revised edition. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 466 p.

Marine Digest and Transportation News. 1991. Port of Seattle hires BN's Kiser. Marine Digest and Transportation News (Seattle), Nov. 1991, p.9.

Marple's Business Newsletter. 1988. Breaking up: Burlington Northern Inc. Marple's, June 22, 1988, p.2-3. (Financial analysis and comment).

Marple's Business Newsletter. 1989. On the block? Marple's, Jan. 18, 1989, p.4. (Plum Creek and Glacier Park for sale?)

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Massey, Steve. 1991. Rail hearing sparks vigorous debate: criic blast proposal to abandon Idaho line. Spokesman Review, Nov. 26, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.16. (ICC hearing regarding UP abandonment of Plummer-Mullan, Silver Valley, Shoshone County, Idaho line. Governor, shippers opposed. Coeur d'Alene tribe supports abandonment after cleanup of metals contamination. ICC decision due in February 1992. See also Spokesman Review editorial, Sept. 30, 1991).

Mather, Steven T. 1915. The national parks on a business basis. Review of Reviews, p. 413, April 1915.

McAllister, W.A. 1940. A study of railroad land-grant disposals in California with reference to the Western Pacific, the Central Pacific, and the Southern Pacific Railroad companies. Ph.D. thesis, University of Southern California.

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McKenzie, William A. 1990. Dining car line to the Pacific: an illustrated history of the NP Railway's "famously good" food, with 150 authentic recipes, William A. McKenzie. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, c1990.

McKinney, Gage. 1984. A.B. Hammond, West Coast lumberman. Journal of Forest History, 28(4): 196-203, Oct. 1984. (Profile of businessman in lumbering, railroading, real estate, and banking, including the Montana Improvement Company, owned by the Northern Pacific and Anaconda Copper; Big Blackfoot Milling, sold to Anaconda in 1898 and then to Champion International; the Oregon Pacific Railroad, sold to Southern Pacific; First National Bank of Missoula; Columbia River Packers Association; Astoria and Columbia River Railroad, sold to the Great Northern; and the Hammond Lumber Company of Oregon and California, sold to Georgia-Pacific in 1956 and spun off with Louisiana Pacific in 1972).

Mead, Walter J. 1956. The forest products economy of the Pacific Northwest. Land Economics 32: 127-129, May 1956.

Mead, Walter J. 1964. Mergers and economic concentration in the Douglas-fir lumber industry. Research Paper PNW 9. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 81 p.

Meersman, Tom. 1995. Author questions railroads' use of resources. Minneapolis Star Tribune, May 26, 1995, reprinted in Transitions, June-July 1995, p. 13. (Reviews the Inland Empire Public Lands Council's book "Railroads & Clearcuts").

Mercer, Lloyd J. 1967. The Central Pacific system; an estimate of social and private rates of return for a land-grant aided railroad system. Thesis. Seattle: University of Washington.

Mercer, Lloyd J. 1969. Land grants to American railroads: social cost or social benefit? Business History Review XLII, Summer 1969.

Mercer, Lloyd J. 1970. Rates of return for land grant railroads. Journal of Economic History 30.

Mercer, Lloyd J. 1972. Taxpayers or investors: who paid for the land grant railroads? Business History Review 46(2): 279-294, Aug. 1972.

Mercer, Lloyd J. 1974. Building ahead of demand: some evidence for the land grant railroads. Journal of Economic History 34(2): 492-500, June 1974.

Mercer, Lloyd J. 1982. Railroads and the land grant policy: a study in government intervention. NY: Academic Press. 268 p. (Does his best to show that the land grants were a profitable deal for the public, but he doesn't factor in the billion of dollars worth of real estate, timber, coal, oil, gold, and other grant land resources in his calculations. He also stops the calculating at the year 1900, using turn of the century land values and rates of return. Even so, he concludes that the Northern Pacific grant in particular was excessive).

Mercer, Lloyd J. 1985. E.H. Harriman: master railroader. Boston: G.K. Hall.

Meridian Aggregates. 1990. Determination of non-significance. Washington State Dept. of Ecology SEPA Register, June 4-8, 1990, p.9. (Cactus Quarry, remove 200,000 tons of basalt a year for 50 years...to produce railroad ballast, 4.8 miles NE of Mesa, Franklin County. Filed May 29, 1990 with the state Dept. of Natural Resources).

Merritt, Mike. 1992. City to sue 30 firms over landfill 0costs. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 19, 1992. (Seattle seeks to recover $35 million spent to clean up hazardous wastes dumped at Midway landfill; Boeing, Waste Management Inc., and Burlington Environmental are named as defendents).

Merryman, S.G. Spring 1975. A corporate approach to resource management. Western Wildlands 2(2).

Messing, John. 1966. Public lands, politics, and progressives: the Oregon land fraud trials, 1903-1910. Pacific Historical Review 35(1), Feb. 1966. Also published in Gates, 1979.

Meyer(s), William D. The Northern Pacific land grant: from Lake Superior to the Puget Sound. Unpublished thesis. Center for Balanced Transportation files. Cited in Goetz, 1979, footnote 11.

Meyer, Balthasar Henry, editor. 1917. History of transportation. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution.

Meyer, Balthasar Henry. 1906. A history of the Northern Securities case. Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No. 142, p.215-350. (Excerpt printed in Ripley, 1907).

Meyer, H.R. 1899. The settlements with the Pacific Railways. Quarterly Journal of Economics 13: 427-444, April 1899.

Meyers, Edward T. 1974. Disinvestment: the great railroad robbery. Modern Railroads Rail Transit, Sept. 1974, p. 67.

Meyers, John R. 1965. Urban transportation problem.

Meyers, John R., Merton J. Peck, John Stenason, and Charles Zwick. 1959. The economics of competition in the transportation industries. Harvard Univ. Press. (Includes public costs of railroads, highways, and waterways).

Mickeleson, Siegfried. 1940. Promotional activities of the Northern Pacific Railroad's land and immigration departments, 1870 to 1902. M.A. Thesis, Dept. of History, University of Minnesota. Published in 1993 as "The Northern Pacific Railroad and the selling of the West: a nineteenth-century public relations venture" by Sig Mickelson. Sioux Falls, SD: Center for Western Studies, Augustana College, 1993.

Miletich, Steve. 1988. Inside trading probe hits BN: pre-spinoff stock sales led to questioning of vice president and girlfriend. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 2, 1988. (Glacier Park VP William Pontius).

Miletich, Steve. 1988. U.S. agency probes for insider trading in Burlington stock: trading of its stock soared just before spinoff. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 23, 1988.

Miletich, Steve. 1992. City files suit over Midway landfill cleanup. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 14, 1992. (To recover at least $36 million in costs of cleaning up hazardous waste from 21 companies that use the city-operated landfill from 1966 to 1983, including BE and BE-acquired Crosby & Overton. See also Peter Lewis article).

Miller, George H. 1971. Railroads and the Granger laws. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Miller, H. Mike. 1982. Forests, people, and Oregon: a history of forestry in Oregon. Salem: Oregon State Forestry Department. 50 p.

Miller, May Merrill. 1938. First the blade. New York. (Novelization of the 1880 Mussel Slough battle near Visalia, California, between settlers and Southern Pacific Railroad agents).

Miller, Michael W. 1987. Corporate giant fights the specter of robber baron: Burlington Northern seeks to remove J.P. Morgan's liens on its lands. Wall Street Journal, May 20, 1987. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.8-9. (1986 bonds package totalled $181.6 million; $115 million are still outstanding. Investor Andrew Farkas, representing "a large group of bondholders who think the settlement is too paltry," came forward in April 1987. He said he had also accumulated 100,000 shares of BN stock in the past two months).

Miller, Winlock. The Olympia narrow gauge railroad. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 16: 243-250.

Minerals under railways. L T 196: 109-110, Sept. 25, 1943. (Legal review).

Minnesota Museum of Art. 1976. Iron horse West: a bicentennial exhibition of painting and sculpture selected from a collection acquired by Northern over the past century / organized and presented the Minnesota Museum of Art. St. Paul: Minnesota Museum of Art, 1976.

Minnesota State Legislature. 1876. Relief of settlers on the line of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Joint resolution asking for the protection by Congress of the rights of certain settlers on the Northern Pacific Railroad. 44-1 H.R. Mis. Doc. 73. Jan. 31, 1876. 1 p.

Missoulian. 1981. Congress may be able to order railroad to relinquish land grants, report says. Missoulian, Oct. 22, 1981. (Rep. Pat Williams requests CRS report [Baldwin?], which concluded that Congress could revest grant lands if BN reorganization as a holding company violated the intent of the grant).

Missoulian. 1982. House committees agree to hearings on rail issues. Missoulian, Oct. 1, 1982. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.26. (Announced by Dorgan, Agriculture Committee, and Williams, Interior Committee. Issues are land grants, holding companies, and abandonment of branch lines. The Energy and Commerce Committee will also be involved. Dorgan and Williams introduced separate bills affecting holding companies and abandonments; see DeWolf article, 1982.).

Missoulian. 1989. One disaster after another: BN's wreck at Whitefish Lake renews call for greater safety. Missoulian, Aug. 4, 1989. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.10-11. (Editorial regarding diesel spill caused by BN derailment; see Sullivan and Wilson, 1989. Local and state agencies say BN is ill-equipped to handle hazardous material spills. Railroads need to be safer, despite FRA reports that they are. Illinois study says accidents are fewer but more severe; U.S. House Public Works and Transportation Committee report says laws and regulations governing hazardous materials are confusing and complex. Congress should investigate rail accidents).

Mitzman, Barry. 1982. BN's fast track to Northwest domain. Seattle Weekly, May 26, 1982, p.18-21. (General discussion of various current affairs, including Powder River coal, hiring of Bressler, rail monopoly in Montana, coal port ventures, and BN Foundation).

Modelski, Andrew M. 1975. Railroad maps of the United States: a selective annotated bibliography... Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

Modelski, Andrew M. 1984. Railroad maps of North America: the first hundred years. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 186 p.

Modern Railroads. EPA dims Western coal prospects. Modern Railroads, Nov. 1978.

Modjeski, Ralph. 1910. The Vancouver-Portland bridges; a report to Mr. Howard Elliott, president of the Northern Pacific Railway Company, and to Mr. John F. Stevens, president of the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway Company, by Ralph Modjeski chief engineer. Chicago, Ill., H.G. Sherman & Co., printers, 1910.

Moen, Judy. 1988. Timber-cutting plans explained to Roslyn council. Daily Record (Ellensburg, WA), Oct. 12, 1988.

Mohler, Samuel Roop. Boom days in Ellensburg, 1888-1891. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 36: 289-308.

Mohr, Nicolaus. 1884. Ein Streifzug durch den Nordwesten Amerikas; Festfahrt zur Northern Pacific-Bahn im Herbste 1883, von N. Mohr. Berlin, R. Oppenheim, 1884.

Monkman, Carol Smith. 1988. BN's image crisis: it faces high price for a little pride. Seatte Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 19, 1988.

Moody's Transportation Manual.

Morgan, Charles S. 1946. Problems in the appraisal of the railroad land grants. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 33(3): 443-454, 1946. Reprinted in: Carstensen, 1963. (Morgan was research director for the Federal Coordinator of transportation).

Morgan, Murray. 1976. The last wilderness. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Morgan, W. Douglas. 1971. Investment bahavior by American railroads: 1897-1914, a comment. Review of Economics and Statistics LII(3):294-298, Aug. 1971. (Comment on Neal, 1969).

Morlin, Bill. 1991. Derailments renew city fears of toxic cargos. Spokesman Review, Sept. 1, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Mar. 1992, p.9-10. (Describes BN derailments involving propane tank cars, and the Spokane area's hazardous materials response teams, but cites AAR statistics showing a 64 percent decrease in railroad accidents over the last ten years).

Morrow, William Chambers. 1882. Blood money. San Francisco. (Novelization of the 1880 Mussel Slough battle near Visalia, California, between settlers and Southern Pacific Railroad agents).

Mosk, Sanford A. 1944. Land tenure problems in the Santa Fe Railroad grant area. Berkeley, Cal. Published in Gates, 1979.

Mosk, Sanford Alexander. Land tenure problems in the Santa Fe Railroad grant area. New York: Arno Press, 1981 [c1944].

Moulton, Harold Glenn et al. 1933. The American Transportation problem, prepared for the National Transportation Committee, by Harold G. Moulton and associates: Paul T. David, Lloyd G. Hoeltzel, Charles L Dearing ... [and others]. Washington, D.C., The Brookings Institution, 1933.

Mountains to Sound: the Creation of a Greenway Across the Cascades. Seattle: Sasquatch Books.

Multinational Monitor. 1994. Meridian's sleight of hand. Multinational Monitor, Nov. 1994, P. 4. (Cites Santa Fe Reporter article by Josh Kurtz, Oct. 19, which said Meridian was found to have consistently underreporting oil and gas production and sales on the 1,073 federal leases it operates).

Murray, F. A. The Book of Ted: or Roosevelt and the Railroads in Scripture. Chicago: Western News Co.

Murray, Keith Alexander. Issues and personalities of Pacific Northwest politics, 1889-1950. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 41: 213-233.

Murray, Keith Alexander. The movement for statehood in Washington. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 32: 349-384.

Murray, S.N. 1957. Railroads and the agricultural development of the Red River Valley of the North, 1870-1890. Agricultural History 31: 57-66 (October 1957).

Myers, Gustavus. 1936. History of the great American fortunes. NY: Modern Library. 732 p. 1st edition, 1909. . (Histories of Russell Sage, James Hill, and the St. Paul (Minnesota) & Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Northern Pacific Railroads; Myers concentrates on stock manipulation, bribery, and other wealth-producing techniques).

Myers, Rex C. 1972. Montana: a state and its relationship with railroads. PhD dissertation. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

Myrick, David. 1961. Refinancing and rebuilding the Central Pacific Railroad, 1899-1910. Provo, UT.

Nalder, Eric. 1988. Hikers, bikers promise to fight: sale of some sections of Burke-Gilman Trail sparks angry reaction. Seattle Times/Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 7, 1988.

Nation. 1873. The Nation, Vol. 16: 65,68, January 1873. (Discussion of and editorial on the Credit Mobilier).

National Coalition for Land Reform and California Coalition of Seasonal and Migrant Farmworkers v. Rogers C.B. Morton, et al. Administrative complaint, June 21, 1972. (petition to the U.S. Dept. of the Interior to investigate problems arising from the land grants) (cited in Applegate n.187) (see also the Sept. 16, 1972 article in Business Week)

Neal, Larry. 1969. Investment behavior by American railroads: 1897-1914. Review of Economics and Statistics LI(2), May 1969. (See also W. Douglas Morgan, 1971).

Nelson, J.R. and H.O. Whitten, editors. International comparisons of freight regulatory policy. Washington, DC: Federal Railroad Administration.

Nelson, James C. 1959. Railroad transportation and public policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Nelson, Milton O. 1987. The lumber industry of America. Review of Reviews 36: 561-575, November 1907.

Nelson, Robert T. 1991. Landfill splits Washington county. Seattle Times, Mar. 24, 1991, p.B1, B6. (Adams Co. and ECOS incinerator plans).

Nelson, Scott Reynolds. Iron Confederacies: Southern Railways, Klan Violence, and Reconstruction. University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Nelson, Thomas. 1977. A bibliography on railroad development and urbanization of the trans-Mississippi West, circa 1860-1890. Exchange Bibliography No. 1288. Monticello, IL: Council of Planning Librarians. 39 p.

Nesbit, Robert Carrington and Charles M. Gates. Agricluture in eastern Washington, 1890-1910. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 37: 279-302.

Neurath, Peter. 1991. BEI still biding its time. Puget Sound Business Journal, Dec. 23, 1991. (Decides to postpone its IPO filed in 1990; upgrades Georgetown and Washougal facilities).

Neurath, Peter. 1992. Burlington Environmental sues rival in hot market. Puget Sound Business Journal, April 24-30, 1992, p.3). (BE seeks to prevent a former employee from profitting from the development of a formula for decontamination of PCB-contaminated pipelines, a market BE expects to be worth a billion dollars).

New York Times. Aug. 4, 1869. (Attacks on land grant policy).

New York Times. 1883. The Northern Pacific: formal completion of Henry Villard's railroad. NYT, Sept. 8, 1883. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.24-25.

New York Times. 1901. Disaster and ruin in falling market; panic without a parallel in Wall Street; losses untold millions; Northern Pacific corner broken too late to save "shorts;" bankers' relief pool; $19,500,000 subscribed when money mounted to sixty per cent--Northern Pacific stock went to 1000--general extent of the crash greater than on Black Friday. NYT, May 10, 1901. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.39.

New York Times. 1901. Hill's friend sold stock: greed of one stockholder, it is said, brought on fight for control of Northern Pacific. NYT, May 11, 1901. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.40-41.

New York Times. 1901. Market falls and panic soon reigns: Northern Pacific corner causes a tremendous break. NYT, May 9, 1901. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.37.

New York Times. 1901. Northern Pacific corner exposed: a court order leads to its final break. NYT, May 7, 1901. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.38.

New York Times. 1901. The Northern Pacific "corner" now broken: unparalleled in history of such movements. NYT, May 10, 1901. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.39-40.

New York Times. 1904. Merger case argued: Supreme Court hears contentions of Minnesota's attorneys in Northern Securities suit. NYT, Jan. 8, 1904. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.41.

New York Times. 1904. Northwest merger future decided: Northern Securities capital cut 99 per cent; to keep outside assets; original holders of Great Northern and Northern Pacific to get their shares back. NYT, March 23, 1904. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.42.

New York Times. 1904. Supreme Court wrecks merger: Northern Securities Company an unlawful combination. NYT, March 15, 1904. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.41-42.

New York Times. 1916. Succeeds James J. Hill: F.E. Weyerhaeuser elected a director of the Gt. Northern Railway. NYT, Oct. 14, 1916, p.16.

New York Times. 1924. Calls for Northern Pacific inquiry. NYT, Apr. 9, 1924. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.13. (Resolution, approved by House Public Lands Committee, restrains Interior from adjusting claims until March 27, 1927. Senate resolution did not set time limit).

New York Times. 1924. Denied land grab: Northern Pacific counsel says road seeks only rights accorded it. NYT, Mar. 14, 1924. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.13. (Testimony before House Public Lands Committee; NP lawyer Alexander Britton says of 44 million acres granted, less than 4 million were received prior completion of the railroad, and that the other land was available only as a basis upon which to issue bonds).

New York Times. 1924. Holds landgrants overpaid railroad: government contends Northern Pacific has realized $136,000,000 on sale; 3,000,000 acres in dispute; company did not complete railroad within legal time limit, it is said; law urged on Congress; Secretaries Work and Wallace, backing inquiry, say public should have title. NYT, Feb. 18, 1924. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.11. (Government says NP land sales to 1917 were worth almost twice what railroad construction cost.

New York Times. 1924. Land grant inquiry sought in Congress: Secretaries Wallace and Work act on 3,000,000 acres of Northern Pacific; desire to save forests; [Sinnott] resolution is introduced in the House and another is requested in the Senate. NYT, Feb. 14, 1924. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.9-10.

New York Times. 1924. Land grant inquiry urged by Coolidge: he asks Congress to scrutinize Northern Pacific Railroad's claims to forest areas. NYT, Feb. 26, 1924. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.5-7. (Prints Coolidge's letter to Senate Public Lands Committee Chairman Lenroot, in which he quotes Agric Dept Secretary Wallace's list of charges).

New York Times. 1924. Land inquiry scorned by Northern Pacific: President Donnelly calls it an attempt to circumvent the courts through Congress. NYT, Feb. 27, 1924. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.9. (Donnelly cites 1921 Supreme Court decision).

New York Times. 1926. Rail land grant hearings end. NYT, July 1, 1926. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.13. (A year of intermittent hearings; deadline to file report is early 1927).

New York Times. 1929. Hoover signs bill taking land grant: Northern Pacific area of 2,800,000 acres removed to be forest reservce; railroad allowed to sue; this will determine whether compensation is due, ending a long dispute. NYT, June 26, 1929. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.13. (2.8 million acres worth an estmated $20 to $25 million. The new law provides that the court will determine whether NP is due compensation; lands in lieu of those to be in litigation not allowed, on the grounds that the railraod did not fulfill its contract).

New York Times. 1930. Government sues Northern Pacific. NYT, Aug 1, 1930. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.15. (Expected to involve $50 million; seeks removal of indemnity lands).

New York Times. 1940. High court weighs old land grants: hears Northern Pacific case, whether government owes railroad for preserves; fraud charged to road. NYT, Oct. 17, 1940. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.19.

New York Times. 1940. Old land grant case back to lower court: Supreme bench acts again on Northern Pacific claims. NYT, Dec. 17, 1940. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.19. (Supreme Court rules that if the NP was guilty of fraud in mineral classification, it might be deprived of any award. Returned the twice-heard case to Eastern Washington District Court after deciding some issues. NP to receive compensation for 1.5 million acres withdrawn from the land grants in WI, MI, MT, WY, ID, and WA. Ruled that the lower court erred in dismissing fraud charges, saying the government had the right to be heard).

New York Times. 1941. Northern Pacific Railway loses claim to 2,900,000 acres as U.S. suit is settled. NYT, Aug. 30, 1941. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.21. (Decree from eastern Washington District Court: NP conveys to U.S. 363,000 acres valued at $1.2 million and pays $300,000 in cash.

New York Times. 1941. Rail land grants liquidated at last: Ickes approves release by the Northern Pacific of 4,500,000 acres in the West; 90-year system is ended; recoveries under 1940 law now have reached a total of about 8,000,000 acres. NYT, Apr. 20, 1941. Reprinted in Transitions, March 1992, p.20-21. (Land recovered by the U.S. under the 1940 Transportation Act includes 4.5 million acres from NP, 2 million from SP; 1.6 million from AT&SF; the Act ends railroad claims and preferential rates for government).

New York Times. 1980. Montana suit names Burlington Northern. May 3, 1980, p. 30. (Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad litigation for price-fixing and restraint of trade).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington buyout. New York Times, Aug. 27, 1988, p.17(N), p.33(L). (Leveraged buyout of BN's trucking unit).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington Motor. New York Times, Aug. 31, 1988, p.28(N), p.D4(L). (Bought by investor group).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington Northern Inc. and Burlington Northern Railroad. New York Times, June 17, 1988, p.38(N), p.D10(L). (BN's debt ratings).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington Northern Inc. New York Times, Aug. 4, 1988, p.D4(L). (Tax-free shareholder distribution of BR interest is announced).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington Northern Inc. New York Times, June 2, 1988, p.D5(L). (BN suspends trading in stock for BR spin-off).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington Northern. New York Times, Dec. 1, 1988, p.D5(L). (Settles dispute with Houston Lighting and Power Co).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington Northern. New York Times, Oct. 7, 1988, p.44(N). (Will move headquarters from Seattle to Fort Worth).

New York Times. 1988. Burlington settles suit over pipeline. New York Times, Nov. 30, 1988, p.C4(N), p.D4(L). (BN, Energy Transportation Systems anti-trust suit).

New York Times. 1988. Rail concern investigated. New York Times, Nov. 24, 1988, p.C3(N), p.D3(L). (BN by SEC for insider trading).

New York Times. 1989. Burlington Northern Railroad Co.. New York Times, Oct. 19, 1989, p.C5(N), p.D5(L). (Executive changes).

New York Times. 1989. Burlington Resources acts against Pennzoil. New York Times, Feb. 24, 1989, p.C4(N), P.D4(L).

New York Times. 1989. Burlington Resources Inc. New York Times, Oct 13, 1989, p.C4(N), p.D4(L). (To seek buyers for Glacier Park Co. properties).

New York Times. 1989. Railroad insider case settled. New York Times, Aug. 5, 1989, p.32(L). (BN lawyer Richard Schreiber).

New York Times. 1990. Burlington Northern Railroad Co. New York Times, Jan. 31, 1990, p.C4(N), p.D4(L). (Executive changes).

New York Times. 1990. Burlington rail in Soviet pact. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1990, p.C4(N), p.D3(L). (To exchange information on more efficient rail systems).

New York Times. Jan. 29, 1871. (Attacks on land grant policy).

New York Times. Mar. 29, 1886. (Re NP lobbying against forfeiture of Washington grant lands; cited in Ellis, 1946, p. 50).

New York Tinmes. 1990. Noranda Forest Inc.. New York Times, Apr. 13, 1990, pp.D3(L). (To buy MDF Technology Inc.).

Newcomb, H.T. 1905. The work of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Republished by Arno Press.

Newell, Alan S., David Walter, and James R. McDonald. 1980. Historic resource study, Glacier National Park and historic structures study. Denver: National Park Service, Denver Service Center.

Nogaki, Sylvia Wieland. 1991. Burlington rate-case settlement OK'd: roadblock to unit sale or spinoff remains. Seattle Times, Mar. 23, 1991. (Tax-free spinoff ruling awaited).

Nogaki, Sylvia Wieland. 1991. 'Fix it before it's broke,' BN chief says. Seattle Times, Feb. 27, 1991. (Management philosophy).

Nolan, Edward W.. 1983. Northern Pacific views: the railroad photography of F. Jay Haynes, 1876-1905, Edward W. Nolan. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, c1983.

Nonpartisan appeal to the voters of Montana. Anaconda: Standard Publishing. (cited in Applegate n. 115)

Norcross, Charles P. January 1907. Weyerhaeuser - richer than John D. Rockefeller. Cosmopolitan 42: 252-259.

Norman, James R. 1992. Divide and prosper. Forbes, Mar. 30, 1992, p.45-46. ("After splitting Burlington Northern into two pieces, Dick Bressler is now about to split one of the pieces. The market loves it." BN's Gerald Grinstein is quoted as saying that "The standing joke was that they [Burlington Resources] got the gold and we got the shaft").

Norris, Floyd. 1994. Market Watch: Gould's legacy: rail regulation for another era. New York Times, Nov. 13, 1994. ("Byzantine regulatory organization" ICC is from the robber baron era, when "rails dominated the economy" and acted with "little regard" for others' interests; implies the ICC is no longer needed).

Norris, Floyd. 1994. Union Pacific shuffles deck, playing new Santa Fe card. New York Times, Nov. 10, 1994, p. C1, C6.

Norris, Frank. 1901. The octopus. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Co, 1901. (Novel about the railroad combines, the "soulless Force, the iron-hearted Power, the monster, the Colossus, the Octopus"; for the real octopus, see Robinson, 1894; for the lumber octopus, see Russell, 1912).

Norris, Frank. 1928. Vandover and the brute. Garden City.

Northern Pacific Railroad Company. 1870. The Northern Pacific railroad's land grant and the future business of the road. [Philadelphia? Issued by Jay Cooke & Co., bankers. 1870?].

Northern Pacific Railroad Company. 1881. General first mortgage, January 1st, 1881, Northern Pacific Railroad Company. [s.l.: s.n., 1881?].

Northern Pacific Railroad Company. 1883. The Northern Pacific country. [Chicago, Rand, McNally, 1883].

Northern Pacific Railroad. 1865. Charter of the Northern Pacific railroad co., organization, proceedings, by-laws, and appendix. Boston, Printed by A. Mudge & son, 1865.

Northern Pacific Railroad. 1870. Northern Pacific railroad. The charter and amendments. The general mortgage on railroad and land grant, and copy of first mortgage bond. Issued by Jay Cooke & Co. [Philadephia? 1870?].

Northern Pacific Railway Co. Papers. Part 1, 1864-1922. Series A: Board of Directors minutes and corporate histories. Series B: labor. Series C: settlement and development. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1985. (Filmed from Minnesota Historical Society collection).

Northern Pacific Railway Company. Annual report. [St. Paul].

Northern Pacific Railway Company. Official directory and shippers' guide.

Northern Pacific. 1867. Memorial of the Board of Directors, November, 1867. Hartford: Case, Lockwood and Co., 1867.

Northern Pacific. 1870. Charter and amendments of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company: approved July 2d, 1864. Burlington, Vt.: R. S. Styles, 1870.

Northern Pacific. 1870. The Charter and amendments. The general mortgage on railroad and land grant, and copy of first mortgage bond.Issued by Jay Cooke & Co., bankers. [Philadelphia, 1870].

Northern Pacific. 1871. The land grant of the Northern Pacific railroad as described in debate in the Senate of the United States, and the House of representatives, by those who felt constrained to vote against its increase. Cambridge, Mass., University press: Welch, Bigelow, & Co., 1871?. 23 p. (U.S. Congress, 2d-session, 1869-1870).

Northern Pacific. 1871. The Northern Pacific railroad between Lake Superior and Puget Sound: value of the land grant, over 50,000,000 acres of land, to secure its first mortgage bonds. London: NP, 1871. [AAR HE 2791 N85 1871g].

Northern Pacific. 1871. The Northern Pacific Railroad; its route, resources, progress and business. The new Northwest and its great thoroughfare. [Philadelphia] Jay Cooke & Co. [1871].

Northern Pacific. 1872. Settler's guide to Oregon and Washington Territory and to the lands of the Northern Pacific Railroad on the Pacific slope, Land Department, Northern Pacific Railroad. New York: The Railroad.

Northern Pacific. 1882. Montana: a concise description of the climate, soil, grazing lands, agricultural and mineral productions of the country adjacent and tributary to the Northern Pacific Railroad. Published for the use of persons seeking information concerning this great new land. Helena, Fisk Bros., 1882.

Northern Pacific. 1883. Saint Paul and the Northern Pacific railway; grand opening, September 1883. St. Paul, Brown & Treacy, 1883.

Northern Pacific. 1885. Northern Pacific Railroad: the wonderland route to the Pacific coast. St. Paul. (Guidebook compiled by NP passenger agent Charles S. Fee; it promoted Yellowstone and NP's hotels).

Northern Pacific. 1892. The Official Northern Pacific Railroad Guide: for the use of tourists and travelers over the lines of the Northern Pacific Railroad, its branches and allied lines: containing descriptions of states, territories, cities, towns and places along the routes of these allied systems of transportation, and embracing facts relating to the history, resources, population, products and natural features of the great Northwest. St. Paul: W.C. Riley, 1892.

Northern Pacific. 1893. The official Northern Pacific Railroad guide: for the use of tourists and travelers over the lines of the Northern Pacific Railroad, its branches and allied lines. St. Paul: W.C. Riley, 1893.

Northern Pacific. 1894. The official Northern Pacific Railroad guide: for the use of tourists and travelers over the lines of the Northern Pacific Railroad and its branches. Containing descriptions of states, cities, towns and scenery along the routes of these allied systems of transportation and embracing facts relating to the history, resources, population, industries, products and natural features of the great northwest Profusely illustrated. St. Paul: W.C. Riley, 1894.

Northern Pacific. 1897. Northern Pacific and Alaska Mining, Transportation, and Trading Company, Snug Harbor, Alaska: a synopsis of its plans and purposes and brief descriptions of its properties. New York, Metropolitan Introduction Co., 1897.

Northern Pacific. 1899. All about the grain, fruit and stock lands of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. St. Paul, Minn. [1899?].

Northern Pacific. 1901. Wonderland 1901. St. Paul. (Compiled by Olin D. Wheeler).

Northern Pacific. 1903. Opportunities: openings for business locations on the line of the Northern Pacific Railway. St. Paul, Minn. [1903].

Northern Pacific. 1909. The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition: Seattle, June 1-October 16, 1909. St. Paul, Minn.: General Passenger Dept., Northern Pacific Railway, 1909.

Northern Pacific. 1910. Kennewick and the highlands on the Columbia River. Kennewick, Wash.: Northern Pacific Irrigation Company, [1910?].

Northern Pacific. 1911. Opportunities along the scenic highway through the land of fortune. [St. Paul] Pub. by Northern Pacific Railway, 1911.

Northern Pacific. 1912. Over the scenic highway, through the land of fortune. [St. Paul, 1912?].

Northern Pacific. 1912. Summer trips to the North Pacific Coast. Saint Paul [Minn.]: Northern Pacific Ry., [1912].

Northern Pacific. 1915. Opportunities along the scenic highway through the land of fortune. [St. Paul] Northern Pacific Railway, 1915.

Northern Pacific. 1916. Puget Sound and Alaska. [St. Paul]: The Company, [1916].

Northern Pacific. 1916. Spokane and the inland empire. [Saint Paul? Minn.]: Northern Pacific Railway Company, [1916].

Northern Pacific. 1917. Puget Sound and Alaska. [St.Paul: Northern Pacific Railway, 1917].

Northern Pacific. 1921. Washington-northern Idaho. [Saint Paul, McGill-Warner Co., 1921].

Northern Pacific. 1926. The storied Northwest: explored by Lewis and Clark in 1804-6 and developed by the Northern Pacific Railway, Northern Pacific Railway. [St. Paul: The Company, ca.1926].

Northern Pacific. 1927. The Press -- and unification: some comment by Northwest newspapers on proposal to unify operation of the Northern lines, issued by Northern Pacific, Great Northern. [S.l.: s.n., 1927?].

Northern Pacific. 1927. Unification of Northern Pacific Railway Company and Great Northern Railway Company: plan and deposit agreement dated February 7, 1927. [s.l.: s.n., 1927?] (New York: Ballou Press).

Northern Pacific. 1933. The story of the monad, Northern Pacific railway standard trade-mark. Colors: red and black. [n.p., Northern Pacific ry., 1933]. (See also O.D. Wheller, 1901).

Northern Pacific. 1937. Alaska. [St. Paul, Minn.]: Northern Pacific Railway, [1937].

Northern Pacific. 1937. Washington and northern Idaho showing lines of the Northern Pacific Ry. [map]. St. Paul, Minn.: Agricultural Development Dept., Northern Pacific Railway, 1937 (St. Paul, Minn.: McGill-Warner).

Northern Pacific. 1946. Brief history of the Northern Pacific Railway. [Saint Paul, Minn., Northern Pacific Railway, Engineering Department, 1946?].

Northern Pacific. Annual report. 1st - 1897 - ?

Northern Pacific. Archives.

Northern Pacific. Go! with Northern Pacific Railway. St. Paul, Northern Pacific Railway Company.

Northern Pacific. North coaster. St. Paul, Passenger Traffic Dept., Northern Pacific Railway.

Northern Pacific. Northern Pacific railroad.

Northern Pacific. The Northern Pacific Coast vacation land, in Northern Idaho, Oregon, Washington; served by the Northern Pacific Railway. [St. Paul, Minn., 19--].

Northern Pacific. The Northwest & Its Resources. Issued bimonthly beginning in May 1955. St. Paul, Minn.

Northern Pacific. The Northwest. Issued monthly by the Agricultural Development Department, Northern Pacific Railway. St. Paul, Minn., Dept. of Agricultural Development, Northern Pacific Railway.

Northern Pacific. The official directory and shippers' guide of the Northern Pacific Railway 1902-1903. R.L. Polk & Co.

Northern Pacific. The western empire, tributary to the Northern Pacific Railroad. A description of the country, cities, and their industries located along the Northern Pacific Railroad. [St. Paul, 189-?].

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Osborn, John. 1990. Plum Creek cuts and runs: you can't see the forest for the lack of trees. Palouse Journal, December 1990. Reprinted in Transitions, April 1992, p.27-28. (PC controls 90,000 acres of checkerboards with Panhandle National Forest, at the St. Joe Divide in northern Idaho. Cutting has caused damage to water quality, cutthroat trout fisheries, and elk habitat).

Osborn, John. 1992. Exporting Lincoln logs to Japan: overcutting empties Northwest timber supplies. Transitions May 1992, p.3.

Osborn, John. 1992. Liquidating Abe Lincoln's forests: massively clearcutting from Yellowstone to Seattle. Transitions, April 1992, p.3.

Osborn, John. 1992. Railroads profit by exploiting resoucres, abandoning towns. Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.54-55.

Osborn, John. 1992. Robber barons' political stranglehold: the curtain falls on America's timber frontier. Transitions, July 1992, p.3. (Congress retains the obligation and jurisdiction to protect the public trust; the time has come to take back the land).

Osborn, John. 1992. Take back the land!: President Calvin Coolidge battles Northern Pacific Railroad. Transitions, March 1992, p.3.

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Phillips, Bob. 1982. BN, FS join to log roadless land near Cabinets. Missoulian, Sept. 24, 1982. Reprinted in Transitions, April 1992, p.21. (BN and PC to share road costs, log over 5-year period. Checkerboards in the Trail Creek drainage; 5000 acres adjacent to the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness. Cutthroat trout, griz, elk and moose habitat. Libby Rod & Gun Club says Kootenai already has high road density, and that the FS cuts would be deficit timber sales).

Phillips, John A. Northern Pacific Bibliography. December 17, 2000. www.employees.org/~davison/nprha/bibliography.html.

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Poor, Henry V. Manual of the railroads of the United States. NY: H.V. and H.W. Poor. (Annual "Poor's Manual").

Porter, Kirk. 1924. National Party Platforms. New York. (In 1880 and 1884 the Greenback National Party called for the recovery of unearned railroad land grants; in 1892, the Populist party called for recovery of land "held by railroads and corporations in exces of their actual needs, and all lands now owned by aliens," and the Democratic party urged recovery of all lands unlawfully held by corporations; Republicans called for forfeiture "where there has been no attempt in good faith to perform the condition of such grants; p. 102, 126, and 162, as cited in Ellis, 1946, p. 40-41).

Porterfield, Andrew. 1989. Railroaded: the LBO trend on Wall Street is playing havoc with the nation's forests. Common Cause Magazine, Sept-Oct. 1989. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1990, p.4-6; and April 1992, p.36-38. (Cites timber company fears of leveraged buy-outs, but calling the spin-off of Plum Creek an L.P., rather than an L.P. and LBO. Also discusses the deregulation of railroads, and soaring demand by the Japanese and others for American lumber. Cites Iowa Senator Tom Harkin testimony at 1989 hearing on land grant railroads' continuing obligations; Harkin has cosponsored a bill requiring ICC to examine railroad takeovers and holding companies. Staggers Act gave regulatory flexibility to railroad holding companies. Early 1980s ICC reports showed siphoning off of natural resources assets, thus threatening railroads. BN and subsidiaries gave $130,000 to PAC's in 1987-1988, and back "grassroots" organizations, citing memos from Communities for a Greater Northwest).

Post, Charles Cyrel. 1884. Driven from sea to sea, or just campin'. Chicago. (Novelization of the 1880 Mussel Slough battle near Visalia, California, between settlers and Southern Pacific Railroad agents).

Potter, David M. 1960. The railroads: select problems in historical interpretation. Part 2 of the revised version of Government and the American economy: 1870 to the present. Revised by E. David Cronon and Howard R. Lamar. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 66 p. (Private ownership and public support; monopoly and discrimination; and government regulation of railroads).

Power, James B. 1910. Bits of history connected with the early days of the Northern Pacific Railway and the organization of its land department. North Dakota State Historical Society Collections 13: 337-349.

Powers, Fred Perry. 1889. The Guilford Miller case and the railroad indemnity lands. Political Science Quarterly 4: 452-479, Sept. 1889.

Powers, Jr., George E. 1982. Gamesmanship on the checkerboard: the recurring problem of access to interlocked public and private lands located within the Pacific railroad land grants. Land and Water Law Review 17(2):429-466. . (Camfield v. U.S.; Leo Sheep Co. v. U.S.; and Montana Wilderness Assoc. v. U.S. Forest Service, re BN permission to build road across Wilderness Study Area for access to timber. "The [Supreme] Court's excessive reliance on eminent domain will certainly make it more difficult for the BLM and the National [sic] Forest Service to manage their 'checkerboard' lands. Public use of these lands will certainly be curtailed...").

Prinzing, Debra. 1991. Trillium to buy big portfolio of Glacier lands. Puget Sound Business Journal, April 1, 1991. (Non-agricultural holdings in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, and Dakotas).

Pryke and Dodgson. The British rail problem.

Pryne, Eric. 1994. The checkerboard legacy: a 130-year-old land deal is posing problems for federal land managers and private timber companies in the central Cascades today. Seattle Times, Nov. 13, 14, and 15, 1994. (Three-part series describing the Northern Pacific Railroad land grant, Plum Creek's reputation, and the proposed Huckleberry and Silver Creek checkerboard land exchanges on the Mt. Baker Snoqualmie and Wenatchee National Forests in Washington State).

Public Land Law Review Commission. 1970. One third of the nation's land. Washington, DC.

Public land ownership. Yale L J 52: 634-655, June 1943.

Publishers Weekly. June 5, 1995, reprinted in Transitions, June-July 1995, p. 7. (Reviews the Inland Empire Public Lands Council's book "Railroads & Clearcuts").

Puget Sound Business Journal. 1989. Ann Building Partnership v. BN and Glacier Park. PSBJ, Mar. 6, 1989, p.27.

Puget Sound Business Journal. 1992. BN plans 200-acre industrial project. PSBJ, May 29-June 4, 1992. (Hillyard property to be developed for business that use rail service).

Puget Sound Business Journal. 1992. Glacier Park sells Spokane property. PSBJ, Mar. 6-12, 1992. (Three downtown parcels sold to Metrolpolitan Mortgage & Securities Co.).

Pujo Commission. 1912. Pujo Commission Report. (Shows Morgan-Rockefeller empire including railroads).

Puter, S.A.D. and Horace Stevens. 1908. Looters of the public domain. Portland: The Portland Printing House. (Puter, "King of the Oregon Land Fraud Ring," writes--from jail--about fraudulent acquisition of public lands, including, in chapter 24, how the Northern Pacific, under the guise of creating Rainier National Park, got additional public lands in every state its lines went through, including 300,000 acres of timberland in Oregon, where it had less than 30 miles of railroad constructed. Quaint but detailed, by someone who was there. It was Puter who bribed U.S. Senator Mitchell. Excerpts reprinted in Transitions, July 1992, p.9).

Pyle, Joseph G. 1917. The life of James J. Hill. NY: Doubleday, Page & Co. 2 volumes. Republished by Peter Smith, Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1968.

Rae, John Bell. 1936. The development of railway land subsidy policy in the United States. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University. New York: Arno Press, 1979.

Rae, John Bell. 1938. Commissioner Sparks and the railroad land grants. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 25: 211-230, Sept. 1938.

Rae, John Bell. 1952. The Great Northern's land grant. Journal of Economic History 12: 140-145, Spring 1952.

Railroad, Tariff, and Trust Questions and the Panic of 1907. Ill. Chicago: M. A. Donohue & Co. 1908.

Railroads and the buffalo trade. In: The time of the buffalo.

Railway Age. 1976. What rail conglomerates do for their railroads. Railway Age, Sept. 27, 1976.

Railway Age. Railroads Popular, Their Ills Ignored. Dec. 9, 1944, pp. 888-889. (Includes the Association of American Railroads' fourth public opinion survey on the railroad land grants, which showed that 48 percent of the public had never heard of the railroad land grants; 21 percent thought the railroads had paid for them, 13 percent felt otherwise, and 17 percent had no opinion. Cited in Morgan, 1946).

Railway Age. Sept. 6, 1941. (Re 1941 settlement in U.S. v. NP).

Railway World. 1879. Northern Pacific to Portland, Maine. Railway World 5: 925, Sept. 27, 1879.

Railway World. 1880. Land grant, July 1, 1879-June 30, 1880. Railway World 6: 1137, Nov. 27, 1880. (Government lands taken).

Rakestraw, Lawrence. 1955. A history of forest conservation in the Pacific Northwest, 1891-1913. Seattle: University of Washington. Ph.D. dissertation.

Ramey, Barbara. 1989. Ex-Burlington lawyer agrees to pay $48,000. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, August 4, 1989. (Richard Schreiber for insider trading before BR spinoff).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1987. A conversation with David Leland: forest firm's 'boom and gloom' times. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 1987. (Admits cutting faster than is sustainable).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1987. Burlington Northern is making a move to sidestep railroad unions. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 1, 1987.

Ramsey, Bruce. 1987. New firm will handle checmical waste. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 8, 1987, p.D12. (Chempro and Ruckleshaus form ECOS).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1988. BN to split into two companies. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 3, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.44. (BR spin-off).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1988. BN will start up a new railroad. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 15, 1988. (Winona Bridge subsidiary to avoid BN labor contracts).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1988. Ex-prosecutor shuns the spotlight now in Burlington Northern job: a conversation with Christopher Bayley. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, March 28, 1988, p.B7.

Ramsey, Bruce. 1988. Ex-prosecutor shuns the spotlight now in Burlington Northern job. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar 28, 1988, p.B7. (Ex-King Co. prosecutor Christopher Bailey as chief exec of Glacier Park).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1988. Ruckleshaus to head Texas-based trash-hauling firm. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sept 8, 1988. (Withdraws from ECOS to join Browning-Ferris).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1989. BR issues takeover warning. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 21, 1989. (Considers spinning off Plum Creek).

Ramsey, Bruce. 1989. Burlington to sell off Plum Creek Timber. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 14 1989. (Public offering and leveraged buyout).

Rand, Ayn. 1959. Notes on the History of American Free Enterprise. New York: Nathaniel Branden Institute, 1959. Republished in Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal, New York: Signet Books, 1967, p. 102-109. (Rand defends the much misunderstood and maligned railroads and their builders, particularly Vanderbilt and Hill; other essays in the 1967 collection include "America's Persecuted Minority: Big Business" and "The New Facism: Rule by Consensus").

Rand-McNally. 1884. The Wonderland of the world, 1884. Chicago: Rand McNally ; c1884.

Rand-McNally. 1903. The Rand-McNally guide to the great Northwest; containing information regarding the states of Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Minnesota, North Dakota, Alaska, also Western Canada and British Columbia, with a description of the route along the Northern Pacific Railway. Gives the early history, topography, climate, resources, and valuable statistics on the states comprising the great Northwest. By S.H. Soule. Chicago, New York, Rand, McNally & Company.

Rand-McNally. Handy railroad atlas of the United States. Chicago.

Reang, Putsata. Rail work proceeds despite Auburn officials' concerns: company damaging landmark, they say. Seattle Times, Nov. 29, 1996, p. 3. (Burlington Northern Santa Fe is rebuilding its Stampede Pass rail line; officials say construction has diverted and damaged streams and covered historic tunnel landmarks).

Redfield, Joye. 1988. Timber harvest fact of life in Roslyn. Yakima Herald-Republic, Oct. 14, 1988.

Relander, Cliffors Curtis, with comment by Arthur S. Taylor. The battleground of national irrigation. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 52: 144-150.

Renz, Louis T. 1980. The history of the Northern Pacific Railroad, Louis Tuck Renz. Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1980.

Renz, Louis Tuck. 1980. The history of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Fairfield, WA: Ye Galleon Press.

Reuters. 1991. BN, union agree to cut crews. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 28, 1991. (Two thirds of system affected; some trains will not have brakeman).

Reynolds, Robert V. and Albert H. Pierson. 1942. Fuel wood used in the United States, 1630-1930. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Circular 641. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Reynolds, Sam. 1982. Still, maybe Pat should read Ted's thesis. Missoulian, Sept. 29, 1982. (Editorial urging Rep. Pat Williams to read Schwinden's thesis regarding the NP land grant).

Richards, Bill. 1990. Washington Central aims to be the little company that could. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 29, 1990. (Nick Temple, BN and Stampede Pass line).

Richards, E. 1924. National forests and the Northern Pacific. Nation 98: 73.

Richardson, Elmo. 1980. BLM's billion-dollar checkerboard: managing the O and C lands. Santa Cruz CA: Forest History Society. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 200 p. I53.2:B49.

Ridgeway, Gordon B. Populism in Washington. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 39: 284-311.

Ridgeway, James. 1973. The last play: the struggle to monopolize the world's energy resources. New American Library edition, 1974. 373 p. . (Covers El Paso in its pre-BN days: monopoly of the California gas market; 1961 Supreme Court order to divest northwest pipeline; joint holdings of coal fields with Consolidation Coal; coal gasification plans; and liquified natural gas importation from Algeria. Appendices show El Paso's ownership and ties to other energy corporations and banks).

Riegel, Robert E. 1923. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Oct. 1923.

Riegel, Robert E. 1926. The story of the western railroads, from 1852 through the reign of the grants. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebrask Press. NY: Macmillan, 1964. 345 p.

Riley, William C. Across the continent via the Northern Pacific: from the lakes & Mississippi River to the Pacific, Columbia River, Puget Sound & Alaska. St. Paul, Minn.: W. C. Riley, [188-?].

Ripley, W. Z. President Roosevelt's Railroad Policy. Boston: W. Z. Ripley. 1906.

Ripley, William Z. 1912. Railroads, rates and regulation. New York.

Ripley, William Z. 1915. Railroads: finance and organization. New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969.

Ripley, William Z. 1916. Trusts, pools, and corporations. NY: Ginn and Co.

Ripley, William Z., ed. 1907. Railway problems. Rev. ed. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1907, 1913.

Ritz, Philip. 1868. Letter upon the agricultural and mineral resources of the north-western territories, on the route of the Northern Pacific Rail Road. [Washington: Chronicle Print, 1868].

Robbins, Jim. 1990. Timber!: did industry cut down a crusading reporter?; the war over the woods. CJR, Jan-Feb. 1990. Reprinted in Transitions, June 1990, p.6-7. (Richard Manning's award-winning but critical articles in the Missoulian led to his reassignment and resignation; Missoulian denies industry pressure. See also Manning, 1991).

Robbins, Roy M. 1935. The federal land system in an embryo state. Pacific Historical Review 4, Dec. 1935.

Robbins, Roy M. 1939. The public domain in the era of exploitation, 1862-1901. Agricultural History 13: 97-108 (April 1939).

Robbins, Roy M. 1976. Our landed heritage: the public domain, 1776-1970. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 2nd ed.

Roberts, William Milnor. 1869. Special report of a reconnaissance of the route for the Northern Pacific Railroad between Lake Superior and Puget Sound, via the Columbia River, made in 1869, by W. Milnor Roberts, U. S. civil engineer, under the direction of Messrs. Jay Cooke & Co., bankers. [Philadelphia? 1869].

Robertson, Lance. 1995. Land grants, clear-cuts connected: Book: the old growth forest crisis has roots in an 1864 railroad land grant by Congress. Eugene, Oregon Register-Guard, Nov. 16, 1995. (Discusses presentation by John Osborn to University of Oregon law students).

Robinson, Gordon. 1988. The Forest and the Trees. Island Press. (Written by Southern Pacific forester turned Sierra Club forester).

Robinson, Gordon. 1994. Ethical forestry: an interview with Gordon Robinson, by Cheri Brooks. Inner Voice 6(1): 10-11, Jan-Feb. 1994. (Forester for Southern Pacific and Sierra Club talks about his career and what ethical forestry involves. When he began his 37-year position with SP, it had "about a million acres of virgin forest as part of the land grant"; they sold the best of the timber, and then began sustained yield on what was left).

Robinson, Herb. 1991. Ideas from the region's best and brightest. Seattle Times, Sept. 27, 1991. (Glacier Park's Chris Bayley on board of Discovery Institute public-policy center).

Robinson, John R. 1894. The octopus: a history of the construction, conspiracies, extortions, robberies, and villanous acts of the Central Pacific, Southern Pacific of Kentucky, Union Pacific, and other subsidized railroads. San Francisco. Republished by Arno Press in 1981. 116 p.

Robischon, Thomas G. 1950. Taxation of the Northern Pacific Railroad in Gallatin County and Montana prior to 1890. Paper submitted for Helen R. Brewer Memorial Award in Montana history, April 1950.

Roederer, Tom. 1989. Access to public land: the Keystone dialogue project. Transactions of the 54th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, p.162-163. . (The US BLM has 25 million acres without public access, including 60 percent of its land in Montana; ten percent of US Forest Service land is without access, including 20 percent in two states. Increased demand for access to public lands, and closure of previously-open private lands, has exacerbated access issues. The two agencies sponsored a year-long dialogue with 40 participants at the Keystone Center in Colorado in 1988-89. See also Kwiatkowski, 1989, for the Keystone's recommendations, and James N. Williams, 1989, for a case study on the Gallatin).

Root, Thomas E. 1987. Railroad land grants from canals to transcontinentals: 1808 to 1941. Natural Resources Law Section Monograph Series No. 4. Published by the Section of Natural Resources Law, American Bar Association, and The National Energy Law & Policy Institute, Univ. of Tulsa College of Law, Dec. 1987. 121 p. (Historical and legal analysis of land grants and mineral rights).

Roper, Michael E. 1992. Railroad regulation after Staggers / Michael E. Roper. Washington, D.C.: Association of Transportation Practitioners, c1992.

Rosbach, Ronald L. 1957. The lieu land controversy in eastern Washington. M.A. thesis in history. Pullman: Washington State Univ. 105 p.

Rothschild, Mary. 1989. County acts on growth in I-90 corridor: stop-go on Sammamish Plateau. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 12, 1989. (Approved exchange with Glacier Park).

Rothschild, Mary. 1989. Time's running out for decision on controversial Issaquah land swap. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 11, 1989. (Glacier Park, Grand Ridge development, Cougar Mt. Park).

Rothschild, Mary. 1990. A bigger Issaquah is a step nearer: countyOKs vote on plateau takeover. Seattle Post-Intelligencr, May 15, 1990, p.B1,B4. (Glacier Park on Grand Ridge).

Rothschild, Mary. 1990. Hill opposes growth plan for Issaquah. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 12, 1990. (Glacier Park and Grand Ridge).

Rowan, James. The I.W.W. in the lumber industry. Seattle: Lumber Workers Industrial Union No. 500.

Royce, Josiah. 1887. The feud of Oakfield Creek. Boston. (Novelization of the 1880 Mussel Slough battle near Visalia, California, between settlers and Southern Pacific Railroad agents).

Runte, Alfred. 1974. Pragmatic alliance: western railroads and the national parks. National Parks and Conservation Magazine 48: 14-21, April 1974.

Runte, Alfred. 1982. Burlington Northern and the dedication of Mount St. Helens: new legacy of a proud tradition. Seattle, Wash.: Burlington Northern, Inc., [1982].

Runte, Alfred. 1983. Burlington Northern and the legacy of Mount St. Helens. Pacific Northwest Quarterly, July 1983, p.116-123. (Revision of a commemorative brochure issued by BN on the third anniversary of the eruption of St. Helens).

Runte, Alfred. 1984. Trains of discovery: Western railroads aand the National Parks. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Press. Also published in 1990 by Roberts Rinehart Inc. (Niwot, CO). 89 p. (History of Yellowstone, Glacier, the Grand Canyon, Yosemite, and Mount St. Helens; material on Mount St. Helens published at Burlington Northern's request).

Russell, Charles Edward. 1909. James J. Hill and the looting of Spokane: Great Northern Railway and its watermelon patch--the citizens of Spokane and their sturdy fight for justice--how the railroads have fought to pevent the lossening of their grip on Spokane's throat. Hampton's Magazine, June 1909; reprinted in Spokesman Review, May 30, 1909, p. 12. (Described ICC railroad rate case of Spokane et al vs. NP, GN, UP, ORNC, and Spokane Falls Railroads).

Russell, Charles Edward. 1912. Stories of the great railroads. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co.

Russell, Charles Edward. 1912. The mysterious octopus: story of the strange and wonderful organization that controls the American lumber trade. World Today 21: 1735-1750, Feb. 1912.

Sachar, Laura. 1989. Rail stripper. Financial World 158(1): 20-21, Jan. 10, 1989. (Restructuring has made shareholders $1.1 billion wealthier, according to CFO Luino Dell'Osso. He and 13 managers should benefit from a newly-written stock option plan. BN railroad is increasingly in debt. By spinning off BR, assets are transferred and capital gains are avoided).

Sacks, Terry. 1988. Critics: BN monopoly hurts Montana. Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Spokesman Review, Feb. 2, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.18,20-21. (Montana Grain Growers Association says BN takes 20 to 34 percent off the top of wheat crops; wheat farmer and state legislator Ted Schye complain. BN shipped $663 million freight in 1986; UP shipped $6.6 million. Montana Public Service Commissioner says BN monopoly hurts state business climate. McCarty Farms class action against BN grain rates; ICC says BN carried 80 percent of grain shipped from Montana; had 91 percent of Montana track mileage; served 98 percent of Montana grain elevators. Consultant study ICC say BN Montana rates are higher than in other states, and worse since Staggers Act. BN defends its "differential pricing.").

Salmon, C.H. 1889. The Burlington strike: its motive and methods... Aurora IL: Bunnell and Ward.

Salo, Sarah Jenkins. 1945. Timber concentration in the Pacific Northwest: with special reference to the timber holdings of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Weyerhaeuser Timber Company. Ph.D. dissertation. New York: Columbia University. Ann Arbor: Lithoprinted by Edwards Brothers, Inc.

Salpukas, Agis. 1988. Burlington Northern's spinoff plan. New York Times, June 3, 1988, P.27(N), p.D1(L).

Salsbury, Stephen. 1982. No way to run a railroad: the untold story of the Penn-Central crisis. NY: McGraw-Hill.

San Francisco Chronicle. 1991. Lean times strain nation's railroads. Spokesman Review, Oct. 20, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.53. (Prominence, safety, and profits decline; 1970s government loans, 1980 deregulation).

Sanborn, John Bell. 1899. Congressional grants of land in aid of railways. Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No. 30, Aug. 1899. Republished by Arno Press; also published in Gates, 1968 (Covers 1860's moves to revoke land grants).

Sandler, Linda. 1988. Some traders play 'the Burlington arbitrage,' a strategy not without risk as spinoff nears. Wall Street Journal, Oct. 19, 1988, p.C2(W), p.C2(E).

Sattler, Edward L. 1980. Diversified holding companies and their impact on the railroad industry. Transportation Journal, Fall 1980, p.65-74.

Saunders, Richard. 1978. The railroad mergers and the coming of Conrail. Westport, CT. 389 p. (From the 1904 Northern Securities Supreme Court decision to Conrail).

Schene, Michael G. 1990. The crown of the continent: private enterpise and public interest in the early development of Glacier National Park, 1910-17. Forest & Conservation History, p.69-75, April 1990. (The Great Northern Railroad invested in hotels and camps and promoted the new national park in its "See America First" campaign. GN President Louis Hill lobbied Interior Dept. and Congress to get public monies for road, bridge, and trail construction on the east side of the park, where GN's investments were. GN influence decreased after Park Service legislation in 1916 and the appointment of Stephen Mather as Director).

Schlender, Brenton R. 1989. Partnership plan set by Burlington Resources for unit (forms master limited partnership to acquire Plum Creek). Wall Street Journal, Apr. 14, 1989, p.B5A(W), p.C15(E).

Schmid, Pam. 1992. Derailment forces evacuation: tens of thousands flee cloud of toxic vapor in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Lewiston Tribune, July 1, 1992. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1992, p. 94-95. (After BN freight train car of benzene spilled into Bemidji River near Superior).

Schnellinger, Lisa. 1988. A rural battle on hazardous waste: major project may be put in E. Washington. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 30, 1988, p.B2. (Ritzville, Lind, Goldendale, Connell, West Richland as sites for ECOS or Rabanco incinerator).

Schnellinger, Lisa. 1989. New doubts and obstacles for state hazardous wastes. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 26, 1989. (ECOS incinerator plan).

Schumacher, Elouise. 1988. Hanford cleanup alliance in the offing. Seattle Times, Nov. 7, 1988. (Boeing, BN, GTE, Rainier and Seafirst Banks, CH2M Hill, at Booth Gardner's invitation).

Schwantes, Carlos A. 19??. Coxey's army: an American odyssey. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 321 p.

Schwantes, Carlos A. 1993. Railroad signatures across the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Schwarm, L.L. 1956. Resume of the Northern Pacific Railroad Land Grant Act of July 2, 1864 and Amendatory and Supplemental Legislation. Unpublished work by the Land Commissioner of the Northern Pacific Railway Company.

Schwennesen, Don. 1991. Historic dam to bite the dust: safety concerns. (Glacier National Park to breach 1892 Great Northern dam). Missoulian, Sept. 10, 1991.

Schwennesen, Don. 1993. Environmentalists decry Champion sale. Missoulian, July 21, 1993. Reprinted in Transitions, Sept/Oct. 1993, p.12.

Schwinden, Theodore. 1950. The Northern Pacific land grants in Congress. Unpublished B.A. thesis. Missoula: Montana State University (now the University of Montana). 132 p. . (Schwinden was later governor of Montana).

Scigliano, Eric. 1988. An all-out war over the Burke-Gilman Trail: was Royer being railroaded by BN, or did he miss a good horse-trade? Seattle Weekly, Feb. 24, 1988.

Scott, Roy V. 1979. American railroads and the promotion of forestry. Journal of Forest History 23(2): 72-81, April 1979.

Seattle (Weekly) Post-Intelligencer. 188? Under a black cloud: the shadow of the land grant in Washington Territory: the domain of the railroad barons in a future state of the American republic: what remains for the settler and home builder? Uneraned land granted to railroad corporations! (Pamphlet showing the NP grant crossing Washington Territory; as cited in Ellis, 1946, p. 49-50).

Seattle (Weekly) Post-Intelligencer. Feb. 4, 1886. (Praised Land Commissioner Sparks' attempt to have NP's Portland to Tacoma grant lands forfeited; the attempt was not sustained by Secretary of Interior Lamar, and the lands were largely passed to Weyerhaeuser. Between 1884 and 1887, the P-I published editorials attacking NP and published the "Black Cloud" pamphlet showing the NP grant covering most of Washington Territory; as cited in Ellis, 1946, p. 49-50).

Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. 1990. Burlington Resources offering. SDJC, June 8, 1990, p.1. ($300 debt securities offered).

Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. 1992. Port pushes Seattle rail connections. Seattle Times/Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 15, 1992, p.C4. (Ex-BN employee Larry Kiser, now marketing specialist at the Port of Seattle, tells carriers calls on both Seattle and California ports are unncecssary; see also Marine Digest and Transportation News article, Nov. 1991, p.9).

Seattle Metropolitan. 1986. Review of privatization and Paschen / Burlington Northern technology: executive summary of findings. Seattle, WA: Metro, 1986. (Sewage disposal plant privatization).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1987. Settlement approved in bondholders' suit. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 1, 1987. (1898 100- to 150-year Northern Pacific bonds settled; removes lien on BN land, oil, gas, minerals, and timber).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. BN comes around. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 22, 1988. (Editorial re Burke Gilman Trail).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. BN plans to talk with angered union. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 7, 1988. (Transfer of Idaho and Montana track to Dennis Washington's new non-union short line, Montana Rail Link. Opposed by United Transportation Union. See also Spokesman Review, Nov. 1, 1987).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. BN stops trading of its stock for 'significant announcement." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 2, 1988. (BR spinoff).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Bressler's hard line. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 24, 1988. (Editorial re Burke-Gilman Trail).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Northern: $175 million settlement reached in pipeline suit. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 29, 1988. (BN pays for blocking construction).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Northern: Motor Carriers division spun off into own group. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 31, 1988.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Northern: parent's earnings drop as subsidiary's increase. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 18, 1988. (BN down, BR up).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Northern: settlement of lawsuit to remove 98-year-old liens. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 25, 1988.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Northern: trucking unit is sold for $90 million. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 27, 1988. (Leveraged buyout by group including BN management).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Resources offering starts at $25.50. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 8, 1988.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Resources' spinoff is to be completed by year-end. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 21, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992 p.45.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Resources subsidiary rpeorts big lode near Salmon, Idaho. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 30, 1988. (Meridian at Beartrack).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Burlington Resources: land company sale is cut off. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 20, 1988. (New Mexico and Arizona Land Co.)

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. City must save Burke-Gilman. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 9, 1988. (Editorial).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Despite heavy trading, BN spinoff's price unchanged. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 9, 1988. (BR stock's first day of sale).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Metro gives $300,000 for rail-service plan. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sept. 2, 1988. (Auburn - Seattle transit plan).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. New railroad to open April 15 unless labor pact is reached. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 22, 1988. (Winona Bridge subsidiary to avoid BN labor contracts).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Petition drive supports trail. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 24, 1988. (Burke-Gilman Trail).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Railroad's sale of Burke-Gilman Trail link could be declared void. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 23, 1988.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Subsidiary maneuvers cause $41 million BN loss. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 19, 1988. (Take or pay suits).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. Texas move involves few jobs. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 7, 1988. (Moving BN headquarters to Ft Worth).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1988. The ICC will look into railroad property sale. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 2, 1988.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1989. A Burlington Resources takeover? (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 7, 1989, p.B1. (By Pennzoil).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1989. Burlington Resources: $72 million profit. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 17, 1989, p.B12. (Was $215 million before natural gas take-or-pay charges. Details gas ppeline, forest products, and real estate data).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1989. Happy trails ahead. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 26, 1989. (Editorial re Burke Gilman Trail).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1989. Park land swap: deal or debacle? Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 16, 1989. (Editorial re Glacier Park - Cougar Mt. exchange).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1990. Burlington Environmental: new CEO moves from El Paso Natural Gas Co. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 2, 1990, p.E8. (John M. Craig).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1991. Burlington Northern: train staffing dispute will go to arbitration. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 14, 1991. (Minneapolis to Seattle trains crews should be reduced like southern ones).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1991. Burlington Resources: El Paso Gas subsidiary will become independent. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 7, 1991.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1991. Burlington: $260 million purchase will boost oil reserves. Seattle Post-intelligencer, Aug. 23, 1991. (Union Texas Petroleum Corp. of Houston).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1991. GNA Life Insurance: Qual-Med of Colorado to reactivate insurer. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 8, 1991.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1991. Railroad buy good investment. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, March 4, 1991, p.A6. (Editorial regarding state buying BN Stampede Pass line).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1992. Flames level shack linked to land claim. Seattle PI, May 1, 1992, p.C3). (Buck Droll, living for 24 years on BN land on Columbia River near Longview, seeks Cowlitz Co. court order to prevent being evicted by BN. Cabin destroyed by fire while Droll was in a Portland hospital; Droll's housemate suspects arson).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1992. Trains and natural gas. Seattle PI, Feb. 16, 1992. (Editorial encouraging BN/Energy Conversions Inc. experiment with methane-powered locomotives. See also Bill Virgin article, Feb. 7, 1992).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1993. Burlington president resigns. Feb. 24, 1993. (BR president Donald Clayton resigns).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1993. Burlington Resources to offer trusts. June 14, 1993, p.B5. (Unitholders of its coal seam gas royalty trust are to be paid quarterly distribution and a tax credit through the year 2002. BR says the proceeds from the sale will go to purchase more oil and gas properties, repayment of debt, stock repuurchases, and other capital investments).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1993. Freight train jumps tracks in Monroe. Aug. 24, 1993, p.B1.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1993. Howison to head Meridian Oil. May 11, 1993, p.B5. (BR chief financial officer George Howison is named president and CEO of Meridian Oil).

Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 1997. 1.4 million acres will be sold at auction. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 31, 1997, p A3. ("In a throwback to the homestead era, a sprawling mass of Nevada bigger than Las Vegas and Reno combined is on the auction block this week, offering bidders a chunk of the state for as little as $50 an acre. The government gave the 1.4 million acres to a rail company for completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869. The 101 parcels, ranging from 155 to 714 acres, are scattered across 340 miles of desert from Reno to Wells, most of them fairly near Interstate 80. Minimum bids for the parcels of one square mile range from $29,900 in Churchill County to more than $110,000 in Elko County. In all, 1.4 million acres will be up for auction. John Houston, a director of Nevada Land & Resource Co., said his Reno firm had received inquiries from Hong Kong, England and Germany").

Seattle Times. 1981. BN holders vote for holding company, move here. Seattle Times, May 15, 1981. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.43.

Seattle Times. 1987. Ruckleshaus tells plan for waste-burning plant. Seattle Times, July 7, 1987, p.B2. (Plans to form ECOS, a joint venture with Sabey's Chempro and BN's Glacier Park, to build an incinerator, a hazardous waste landfill, and recycling facilities).

Seattle Times. 1988. 23 cars of BN train derail; caustic chemical leaking. Seattle Times, Apr. 9, 1988.

Seattle Times. 1988. B-N public relations suffers another setback. Seattle Times, Mar. 23, 1988. (Editorial re Burke Gilman Trail).

Seattle Times. 1988. BN trucking operation sells for $90 million. Seattle Times, Aug. 27, 1988. (Leveraged buyout by own management).

Seattle Times. 1988. Burlington Northern agrees to settlement. Seattle Times, Nov. 28, 1988. (Pays $175 million for blocking coal-slurry pipeline construction).

Seattle Times. 1988. Burlington Northern says profits down. Seattle Times, Oct. 18, 1988. (Take or pay losses).

Seattle Times. 1988. Burlington Northern shuffles executives. Seattle Times, Oct. 21, 1988. (Bressler, O'Leary, Grinstein, as part of BR spin-off).

Seattle Times. 1988. Burlington Northern's nose-thumb at the city. Seattle Times, Feb. 10, 1988. (Editorial on Burke-Gilman Trail).

Seattle Times. 1988. City will take part in rail-link study. Seattle Times, Aug. 30, 1988. ($100 million Auburn-Seattle transit proposal).

Seattle Times. 1988. Erroneous supervaluation? Seattle Times, Apr. 25, 1988. (BN's tax experts meet in Seattle).

Seattle Times. 1988. IRS to allow railroad to distrivute shares. Seattle Times, Aug. 4, 1988. (Allows distribution of 87% of BR shares to BN shareholders. The rest was sold to public).

Seattle Times. 1988. Metro Council OK's money to start rail-project plan. Seattle Times, Sept. 2, 1988. (Auburn - Seattle transit plan).

Seattle Times. 1988. Oops! Memo exposes BN land-deal intent. Seattle Times, July 31, 1988. (Editorial re Burke Gilman Trail).

Seattle Times. 1988. Pedalers protest. Seattle Times, Mar. 4, 1988. (Photo and caption re Burke-Gilman Trail protest at BN headquarters.

Seattle Times. 1988. Publicity-shy BNI. Seattle Times, Mar. 28, 1988. (BN hires NY PR firm Adams Rinehart for upcoming labor negotiations).

Seattle Times. 1988. Railroad asks delay in hearing on sale. Seattle Times, Aug. 16, 1988. (ICC & Burke Gilman).

Seattle Times. 1988. Railroad seeks delay by ICC on trail case. Seattle Tiems, Sept. 15, 1988.

Seattle Times. 1988. Railway traffic back on track after derailment. Seattle Times, Apr. 11, 1988.

Seattle Times. 1988. Ruckleshaus takes Houston job. Seattle Times, Sept. 8, 1988, p.E2. (Withdraws from ECOS to join Browning-Ferris).

Seattle Times. 1988. U.S. intervention urged in BN sale of trail section. Seattle Times, May 21, 1988. (National Park Service Director Mott urges ICC intervention in Burke Gilman sale).

Seattle Times. 1989. Timber company stake to be sold. Seattle Times, Apr. 14, 1989. (88% of Plum Creek to be sold to the public; limited partnership to be created).

Seattle Times. 1990. Seattle Times, Apr. 20, 1990. (BR to sell Meridian Gold to FMC Gold of Chicago; FMC will issue $87 million in stock; Royal King Mt. in Calif. and Beartrack).

Seattle Times. 1991. BN, union agree to cut train crews. Seattle Times, Oct. 28, 1991. (Two thirds of system affected; some trains will not have brakeman; 3000 of 8500 brakemen considered surplus).

Seattle Times. 1991. Burlington holdings show weak quarter. Seattle Times, Oct. 8, 1991. (interest on tax refund of $22 million).

Seattle Times. 1991. Burlington spinoff about to happen. Seattle Times, Dec. 5, 1991. (20 percent of El Paso to be sold in the first quarter of 1992; 80 percent would be distributed tax-free to BR shareholders).

Seattle Times. 1991. Great Northern says it will sell GNA Life. Seattle Times, Oct. 7, 1991. (To Qual-Med of Colorado).

Seattle Times. 1991. Protesters block Seattle-bound train. Seattle Times, Nov. 23, 1991. (transportation, dock, and grain workers in B.C. proptest for Canadian jobs).

Seattle Times. 1992. At the top. Seattle Times, Nov. 30, 1992, p.E2. (BN chairman and CEO Gerald Grinstein is elected chairman of the Association of American Railroads).

Seattle Times. 1992. Burlington offers shares in El Paso. Seattle Times, May 14, 1992 p.D8. (BR board to distribute 31.4 million shares of El Paso to BR stockholders, one share for every 4.2 shares of BR they own, as of June 15. In March, 5.7 shares of EP was sold at $19 per share in an IPO).

Seattle Times. 1992. Burlington spinoff of El Paso closer. Seattle Times, Jan. 30, 1992. (Five million shares, or 14 percent, to be sold. BR board also approves repurchase of 10 million shares of its own stock; it has repurchased 19.4 million shares since spinoff three years ago).

Seattle Times. 1992. Chemicals skimmed from river where train derailed. ST, July 1, 1992. (14 BN cars derail; benzene and other chemicals spill into Nemadji River, killing fish and evacuating at least 50,000 people in and around Superior, Wisconsin and Duluth, Minnesota, until toxic cloud dissipated).

Seattle Times. 1993. 3 rail cars dumped off bridge into river. Seattle Times, Apr. 20, 1993. (Derailment over the Wind River in Skamania County, Washington included two cars loaded with fuel oil. "There was no oil leakage and no injury" according to a BN spokesman).

Seattle Times. 1993. Burlington Resources profits come in high. Seattle Times, Jan. 14, 1993, p.F4.

Seattle Times. 1993. Burlington seeks to buy units in natural gas trust. Aug. 13, 1993, p.E2. (BR has acquired 33 percent of Permian Basin Royalty Trust from American Enterprises Holding; announces it will start a tender offer for the rest. The purchase would add 187 billion cubic feet of natural gas reserves in Crane County, Texas, to BR's inventory).

Seattle Times. 1993. Burlington spinoff begins trading on N.Y. exchange. June 11, 1993, p.D4. (Burlington Coal Seam Gas Royalty Trust).

Seattle Times. 1993. 'Garbage train' car erupts into flames. May 1, 1993, p.A7. (Construction debris, loaded by Rabanco for hauling to the Klickitat landfill, burns in Seattle industrial area).

Seattle Times. 1993. Train with hazardous material derails in Monroe. Aug. 24, 1993, P.A1. (BN cars carrying phosphoric acid, acetic acid, and chromic trioxide derail; five-block area of Monroe, Washington is evacuated).

Seattle Weekly, Aug. 28, 1996, p. 19. (The Washington State Public Disclosure Commission, for the third time in that election cycle, investigated House Majority Leader Dale Foreman for election law violations -- this time for his establishment of the supposedly independent, but actually pro-Republican, Campaign for Washington -- Foreman and CFW were each raising money for the other. CFW co-chairs Dick Derham and Chris Bayley, a former officer of Burlington Northern, Burlington Resources, and Glacier Park, were also key strategists in Foreman's campaign for governor).

Seattle Weekly. 1981. Seattle Weekly, Sept. 23, 1981, p.6-7. (Discusses railroad unions and the Citizens Committee to Save the Land Grant Railroads).

Seattle, Municipality of Metropolitan. 1973/74. Feasibility study for the preservation of Union-King Street Station as a Metropolitan Seattle transportation center.

Seattle. 1905. Railroad franchises in the city of Seattle, Washington, together with the city charter and the ordinances of said city relating to railroads and streets contiguous to railroads and railroad property, with annotations; comp for the Great Northern Railway Company and the Northern Pacific Railway Company, by Charles S. Gleason. Seattle, The Metropolitan Press, 1905.

Sellars, Richard West. 1992. Railroads promoted parks more than explorers. Special to the Washington Post. Seattle Times, March 1, 1992. (Sellars is a National Park Service historian in Santa Fe, NM, writing a book on Natural resource management in the national parks).

Shannon, Fred A. 1940. America's economic growth. NY: Macmillan.

Shannon, Fred A. 1946. Comment on "The Railroad Land Grant Legend in American History Texts." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 32(4), March 1946. (Argues for revestment).

Sharfman, I.L. 1931. The Interstate Commerce Commission: a study in administrative law and procedure. New York. 4 vols.

Sheire, James W. 1970. Glacier National Park: historic resource study. Washington, DC: National Park Service, Office of History and Historic Architecture, Eastern Service Center.

Simonton, Thomas Campbell. 1896. A treatise of the law of municipal bonds of the municipal corporations of the United States, including bonds issued to aid railroads. To which are added excerpts from the state constitutions relating to the incurring of debt for public purposes, by T. C. Simonton. New York, Albany, Banks & brothers, 1896.

Sims, Harold M. 1925. History of the Great Northern Railway Company. Shipper and Carrier, Feb 1925.

Small, Kenneth A. 1977. Measuring the pollution costs of transportation modes. Journal of Transportation Economics and Policy, Sept. 1977, p.109-132.

Smalley, Eugene Virgil. 1883. History of the Northern Pacific Railroad. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Arno Press (NY), 1975 reprint.

Smalley, Eugene Virgil. 1892. The story of the Northern Pacific. Northwest, October 1892.

Smith, C. Early development of railroads in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 13: 243-250.

Smith, Carlton. 1988. Montana mogul raises furor: BN connection to buyer of trail links is no surpise. Seattle Times, Feb. 15, 1988. (Dennis Washington).

Smith, J. L. Map of the city of Tacoma, Washington Territoryy. [map]: Pacific terminus of the Northern Pacific R.R. on Puget Sound. Philad'a. [i.e. Philadelphia]: J.L. Smith, [188-?].

Sobel, Robert. 1977. The fallen colossus. NY: Weybright and Talley.

Solomon, Caleb. 1989. Pennzoil sells its 8% holding in Burlington; big war chest gets bigger, fueling new questions as to possible targets. Wall Street Journal, June 9, 1989, p.A3(W), p.A3(E).

Solomon, Caleb. 1989. Suit by Burlington Resources attacks Pennzoil's motives. Wall Street Journal, Feb. 24, 1989, p.C20(W), p.C13(E).

Solomon, Caleb. 1989. Tables are turned for Thomas O'Leary. Wall Street Journal, Mar. 21, 1989, p.B12(W0, p.B12(E). (re Pennzoil).

Songe, Alice H. 1980. The land-grant idea in American higher education: a guide to information sources. New York: K. G. Saur, 1980.

Sorenson, Eric. 1991. No train: tiny town is cut off. Spokesman Review, Apr. 3, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.13-14,. (UP abandonign Tekoa-Pleasant Valley branch line south of Spokane, affecting pea and lentil processors. BN may get windfall for its line running through the Palouse).

Southerland Jr., Thomas C. and William McCleery. 1985. The way to go: the coming revival of United States rail passenger service. Simon & Schuster. 1973?

Spence, Clark C. 1975. Territorial politics and government in Montana: 1864-89. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

Spokane Chronicle. 1930. Claims millions of acres of US land wrongfully held: government suitamkes allegations against Northern Pacific. Spokane Chronicle, Aug. 1, 1930. Reprinted in Transitions, Mar. 1992, p.15,16. (Quotes NP President's statement that the government can retake forest lands if it pays for them).

Spokesman Review. 1905. Tyrannical dominance of the railroad in the Western states. Jan. 8, 1905.

Spokesman Review. 1907. Biggest mill in U.S. for Idaho: claim Weyerhaeusers plan vast works at Orofino. Spokesman Review, Jan. 27, 1907. Reprinted in Transitions, Dec. 1993, p.20-21. (Northern Pacific land sold to Weyerhaeuser with the proviso that NP gets to haul the timber; three billion board feet estimated; Weyerhaeuser plans to spend $2 million).

Spokesman Review. 1909. Enormous land frauds alleged: new information exposing deals amounting to $110,000,000. Spokesman Review, Jan. 19, 1909. (Interioir Secretary Garfield seeks appropriation of $1 million to investigate 32,000 cases of land frauds by corporations and individuals in Oregon, Califonria, Nevada, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming, Utah, and New Mexico).

Spokesman Review. 1909. Harriman fights for S.P. grant: property valued at $40,000,000 at stake in suit to be opened in Portland. Spokesman Review, Feb. 28, 1909. (Two million acres of Southern Pacific's O&C grant lands at stake; government alleges 376 instances of failure to sell grant lands in small parcels to settlers, and that SP graded the lands and fixed the prices).

Spokesman Review. 1909. James J. Hill trapped in Spokane by prosecutor Pugh: Great Northern builder served with subpena to testify before grand jury today: light on Gordon sought: deputy sheriff Logan serves summons on railroad king of Northwest in his special car at N.P. station. June 4, 1909, p. 1. (Former deputy prosecuting attorney, then Judge J. Stanley Webster involved in seven indictments against Great Northern general counsel M.J. Gordon, former "supreme justice" of Washington State).

Spokesman Review. 1909. Land suits filed by government: action taken to recover 353,288 acres in Oregon. Spokesman Review, Jan. 24, 1909. (35 suits filed against O&C, Southern Pacific, and more than 100 individuals and private corporations for failure to sell grant lands to settlers. Some defendants are named).

Spokesman Review. 1909. May bare land frauds out West: sensational disclosures anticipated by the wise in Washington; appropriation by Congress means turning searchlight on alleged shady deals. Spokesman Review, Jan. 25, 1909.

Spokesman Review. 1909. Mineral lands kept from entry: Montana legislature asks Congress to reclassify N.P. grant, alleging abuse. Mar. 12, 1909. (Montana legislature, at urging of Montana Mining association, passes resolution asking Congress to reclassify "agricultural" lands which actually contain valuable minerals).

Spokesman Review. 1909. Mr. Hill and the grand jury. June 5, 1909. (Congratulates Hill for obeying subpoena in M.J. Gordon case).

Spokesman Review. 1909. N.P. grant lands nearly all sold: only 100,000 acres classed as tillable remain in state, says [NP land agent] Cooper; relates gain in price; company's land agnt tells how sections sold for 50 cents acres are ow worth $30. Spokesman Review, Jan. 27, 1909. ("The land department of the Northern Pacific has been a material factor in building up the northwest. The land was sold at reasonable prices and on reasonable terms. Speculators were eliminated and the land sold to actual settlers." Cooper praises the benefits of irrigation; claims the railroad is selling its remaining land "as rapidly as possible", but that "irrigable lands are being held until the right project comes along").

Spokesman Review. 1909. N.P. land patents disputed by U.S.: arguments in case involving 40,000 acres Yakima Indian lands begin in federal court: famous treaty is vague: government contends agreement made in 1855 has been misinterpreted. Sept. 27, 1909.

Spokesman Review. 1909. Railroads ruled by the people: watch public opinion, says Ripley, Santa Fe president. Nov. 11, 1909. ("It is, after all, the public that is master... In this country the people rule -- and in the long run that system, that method or that personality that does not meet the approbation of the public can not succeed").

Spokesman Review. 1909. U.S. government begins suit to recover Northern Pacific lands: allegations of fraud in classification of mineral tracts are made in complaint which has been filed. May 30, 1909, p. 2. (Charging fraud in 1901 classification of 1800 acres, U.S. seeks to recover from NP grant lands which are mineralized).

Spokesman Review. 1909. Wants railroads to reforest land: Pinchot urges on transportation lines purchase of timbered tracts. Dec. 15, 1909, p. 5.

Spokesman Review. 1930. N.P. land grant account asked: U.S. sues in Spokane court to quiet titles worth millions. Spokesman Review, Aug. 1, 1930. Reprinted in Transitions Mar. 1992, p.15. (Defendents include Northwestern Imprivement Co., Bankers Trust, Quaranty Trust, City Bank, and Farmers Trust. Government counsel is headed by Attorney General W.D. Mitchell).

Spokesman Review. 1987. Rail workers halted in protest against Rail Link takeover. Spokesman Review, Nov. 1, 1987. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.21. (Court order forces United Transportation Union workers from Spokane to North Dakota back to work on BN. The strike involved the Montana Rail Link line, which UTU says is a union-busting tactic. Final sales/lease agreement between MRL and BN was signed in October 1987; US District Court (Helena) failed to block the agreement, saying ICC has sole authority. See also Seattle PI Oct 7 1988).

Spokesman Review. 1988. Timber expert decries accelerated harvests on private property. Spokesman Review, Oct. 24, 1988. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1990, p.14, Dec 1991 p.16. (UM professor Alan McQuillan and Forest Service offical John Combes. See also Manning, Oct. 23, 1988).

Spokesman Review. 1990. Farmers get railroaded. Editorial, Nov. 18, 1990. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.12. (Federal government should stop the abandonment of farm-to-market rail lines such as the UP Tekoa-Pleasant Valley line south of Spokane. See Eric also Sorenson article and editorial cartoon in Apr. 3 and Apr. 7, 1991 Spokesman Review.).

Spokesman Review. 1991. Keep Silver Valley on track. Editorial, Sept. 30, 1991. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.17. (Idahoans petition ICC to hold hearing on UP abandonment of Silver Valley line. See also Steve Massey article, Nov. 26, 1991).

St. Paul Pioneer Press. 1900. Deal now closed: the Weyerhaeuser syndicate pays Northern Pacific $6,500,000. SPPP, Jan. 3, 1900. Reprinted in Transitions, 1992. (A million acres in Washington along the Seattle & Northern branch of the NP, between Anacortes and Hamilton, sold Jan 2. Weyerhaeuser has an option on a second tract, also at $6.50 per acre, which is expected to be completed soon).

Starr, John W. Jr. 1927. Lincoln and the railroads. NY: Dodd, Mead. Arno Press, 1981. 325 p.

Startzman, Howard H. 1913. Railroad company attempt to beat settlers out of rights: prominent Seattle attorney points out the manner in which the NP now seeks to obtain land upon which homesteaders located in good faith... Broadside reprinted from Seattle Union Record, Dec. 20, 1913.

Steele, Karen Dorn. 1989. East Siders: don't dump toxic waste here. Spokesman Review, Sept. 12, 1989. Reprinted in Transitions, July 1990, p.21; Feb 1992 p.47. (Hazardous waste facility siting criteria scoping hearing held in Spokane; ECOS and Rabanco incinerator proposals are opposed. Followed by an editorial cartoon Sept. 17, also in published in Reprinted in Transitions).

Steele, Karen Dorn. 1990. Farmers fear fallout from incinerators. Spokesman Review, Oct. 13, 1990. Reprinted in Transitions, Feb. 1992, p.48-49. (Anti-ECOS and Rabanco forum sponsored in Ritzville by the Washington Association of Wheat Growers. The Adams County Association of Wheat Growers offers to fund appeal of WDOE siting regulations approved Sept.13).

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Virgin, Bill. 1990. Bressler steps down as chief of Burlington Resources. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 11, 1990. (Replaced by O'Leary; remains as director).

Virgin, Bill. 1990. Burlington Resources may shed pipeline subsidiary. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec. 14, 1990. (Spinoff of El Paso).

Virgin, Bill. 1990. Firm to buy Glacier Park Co. land. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Nov. 22, 1990. (Trillium).

Virgin, Bill. 1991. BN growing as international trade partner: railroad looks abroad to boost anemic returns, Grinstein says. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 27, 1991. (Japan, Taiwan, B.C.).

Virgin, Bill. 1991. Burlington Resources avoids gas fallout. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 9, 1991. (Natural gas economics).

Virgin, Bill. 1991. Burlington Resources thinks the future is a gas. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 23, 1991.

Virgin, Bill. 1992. Option to dirty diesel: refrigerated methane fuels train locomotive. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 7, 1992, p.B1,B4. (BN and Energy Conversions Inc. experiment with methane, a cleaner-burning fuel than diesel).

Virgin, Bill. 1992. Railroads spin profits from trash: all eyes on experiments in Seattle. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 15 1992, p.B1,B5. (Union Pacific, BN, Rabanco, Waste Management).

Virgin, Bill. 1992. Shareholder activism has its dividends. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 19, 1992. (Religious organization shareholders, including the Presbyterian Church USA, seek enviornmental resolution votes at BR and BN board meetings).

Virgin, Bill. 1993. Burlington Resources is leaving. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Aug. 7, 1993, p.A1,A6. (BR moving corporate headquarters from Seattle to Houston, home of its Meridian Oil subsidiary; its remaining major local operation is Burlington Environmental).

Virgin, Bill. 1993. Burlington Resources keeps cooking with gas. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Mar. 20, 1993, p.B4. (Annual shareholders meeting held; most of its planned divestiture of non-natural gas operations, which has raised $1.4 billion, has been completed. BR, the nation's largest independent natural gas company, will continue to make acquisitions, drill wells, and repurchase stock).

Virgin, Bill. 1993. Burlington sells off Plum Creek shares. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Jan. 5, 1993. (To SPO Partners, which gains controlling interest).

Volunteers for Outdoor Washington, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, and Burlington Northern Railroad. 1991. Follow the steps of an empire builder: Iron Goat Trail. Seattle: Volunteers for Outdoor Washington, Iron Goat Trai Project, May 1991. Brochure.

Vranich, Joseph. 1992. Supertrains: solutions to America's transportation gridlock. St. Martin's Press. 406 p. (Compares the US system to the more modern European and Japanese systems).

Waggener, Thomas R.. 1966. The federal land grant endowments: a problem in forest resource management. Thesis. Seattle: University of Washington.

Walker, David Allan. 1973. Discovery and exploitation of iron ore resources in northeastern Minnesota: the formative years, 1865-1901. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Walker, Donald C. 1993. Feds defy history, usurp counties' funds: O&C millions belong to descendents of those who settle in Oregon. Oregonian, June 22, 1993. (Walker filed suit on behalf of Clackamas County in 1976 seeking return of O&C lands to the state; U.S. District Court Judge James Burns said "if jurisdiction was not a hurdle, and simple fairness was the only test I need apply, he [Walker] might well carry the day." Walker also cites 1951 Oregon State Legislature memorial also seeking return of 2.5 million acres).

Wall Street Journal. 1975. Some railroads may benefit from rise in utilities' use of coal as a source of energy. Wall Street Journal, Aug. 27, 1975.

Wall Street Journal. 1978. Texas battle of coal hauling rates risks U.S. energy plan, efforts to lift rail net. Wall Street Journal, May 16, 1978.

Wall Street Journal. 1988. Burlington debt ratings are cut by Moody's Investors. Wall Street Journal, June 17, 1988, p.3A(W), p.39(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1988. Burlington Northern loses bid for smaller crews. Wall Street Journal, June 13, 1988, P.4(W), p.36(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1988. Burlington Northern says bond settlement effective. Wall Street Journal, Jan. 22, 1988, p.35(W), p.39(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1988. Burlington Northern says suit settlement will hurt earnings. Wall Street Journal, Nov. 29, 1988, p.B6(W), p.B6(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1988. Pact ended on selling stake in Southwest land concern. Wall Street Journal, Aug. 22, 1988, P.3A(W). (BR and New Mexico & Arizona Land Co.).

Wall Street Journal. 1988. Truckload carrier unit's buy-out is completed. Wall Street Journal, Aug. 29, 1988, p.15(W), p.12(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1988. Unit buys majority stake in hazardous-waste firm. Wall Street Journal, Mar. 3, 1988, p.2(W).

Wall Street Journal. 1989. Burlington Northern Inc. (who's news). Wall Street Journal, Oct. 4, 1989, p.B12(W), p.B12(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1989. Burlington Resources Inc.. Wall Street Journal, June 2, 1989, p.C15(W). (Public offering for setup of a limited partnership to acquire the company's Plum Creek Timber Co.).

Wall Street Journal. 1989. Burlington Resources. Wall Street Journal, Jan. 9, 1989, p.A7B(W). (Meridian Oil Inc. subsidiary boosts natural gas reserves).

Wall Street Journal. 1990. Burlington Northern extends its exchange offers. Wall Street Journal, Dec. 11, 1990, p.C15(W), p.C18(E). (for holders of debt).

Wall Street Journal. 1990. Burlington Northern Inc. (who's news). Wall Street Journal, Jan. 30, 1990, p.B9(W).

Wall Street Journal. 1990. Burlington Northern unit names Gen. Chain to post. Wall Street Journal, Dec. 5, 1990, p.B5(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1990. Burlington Northern. Wall Street Journal, Sept. 25, 1990, p.C19(W). (New securities issues).

Wall Street Journal. 1990. Burlington Resources buy-back. Wall Street Journal, Apr. 12, 1990, p.C6(W), p.C6(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1991. Burlington Northern unit offer. Wall Street Journal, Jan. 16, 1991, p.B8(W), p.C17(E). (For St. Louis-San Francisco Railway Co. debentures).

Wall Street Journal. 1991. Burlington Northern. Wall Street Journal, Aug. 7, 1991, p.A12(W), p.A12(E). (Begins joint ventures in Soviet Union).

Wall Street Journal. 1991. Burlington Resources' reserves. Wall Street Journal, Feb. 1, 1991, p.A6(W).

Wall Street Journal. 1991. Loss of $420 million posted by railroad for 2nd period. Wall Street Journal, July 19, 1991, p.A12(E).

Wall Street Journal. 1992. WSJ, May 28, 1992. (Agreement for rail-barge service from Texas to Mexico signed by the Port of Galveston and joint venture partners Grupo Protexa of Monterrey, Mexico and BN).

Wallace, James. Trail backers serenade commuters in Fremont. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Apr. 1, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Ward, James A. 1981. The railway corporate-state metaphor: images and reality. Business History Review, p.491-516, Winter 1981.

Ward, James A. 1986. Railroads and the charcater of America. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press. 200 p.

Washington (State). 1905. General laws and constitutional provisions of the state of Washington relating to railroads. Pub. by authority of the Railroad commission of Washington. Olympia, Wash., C.W. Gorham, public printer, 1905.

Washington (State). 1907. General laws and constitutional provisions of the state of Washington relating to railroads, pub. by authority of the Railroad Commission of Washington. Olympia, Wash., C.W. Gorham, public printer, 1907.

Washington Post. 1974. Railroad to develop vast land holdings. Washington Post, Feb. 2, 1974.

Washington State Dept. of Ecology. Affected media and contaminants report. Olympia, WA: WDOE, Toxics Cleanup Program. (Quarterly list of hazardous waste sites by county and owner; includes BN and related corporations' sites).

Washington State Dept. of Ecology. Hazardous waste annual report summary. Olympia: Solid and Hazardous Waste Program, Washington Dept. of Ecology. (Annual. Lists some of the hazardous wastes generated by specific companies, incl. Weyerhaeuser, BN, Scott Paper, Cascade Pole, Longview Fiber, Chemical Processors, Container Corp. of America, Wycoff, Georgia-Pacific.

Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources. 1978. Western Washington forest land ownership survey. Olympia, WA: DNR. 27 leaves.

Washington State Dept. of Transportation. 1987. Trude to Ravensdale project: supplemental information, response to comments. Olympia, WA: WDOT, [1987].

Washington State Division of Forestry. 1904. Forest resources of Washington. Olympia: State Printer.

Washington State Legislature. 1890. Memorial to the Legilature of the State of Washington in relation to certain lands withheld from entry and settlement by reason of withdrawal by the Secretary of Interior for the benefit of the NP Railroad Co. 51st Cong., 1st sess., S. Mis. Doc. 63. Jan. 28, 1890.

Washington State Railroad Commission. 1910. First-[fifth] annual report of the Railroad commission of Washington, to the governor, covering the period from June 23, 1905 to [Nov. 1, 1910]. Olympia, Wash., 1907-10.

Washington State Tax Commission. 1937. In the matter of the reassessment of the operating property of the Northern Pacific Railway Company for the years 1935 and 1936. Commission's opinion and order. Olympia, State Printing Plant, 1937.

Washington State. Dept. of Public Works. 1924. Washington State. Dept. of Public Works, complainant. Physical operating and traffic study of Seattle Terminal Prepared under direction of O.O. Calderhead. [Olympia, F.M. Lamborn, public printer] 1924.

Washington Toxics Coalition. 1992. ECOS withdraws incinerator permit application. WTC Alternatives, Winter 1992, p.2. (Burlington Resources' ECOS quits attempt to build hazardous waste incinerator in eastern Washington).

Waters, L.L. 1950. Steel trails to Santa Fe. Lawrence.

Watson, Emmett. 1988. Advice to BN: get it in the open and be done with it. Seattle Times, Apr. 17, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Watson, Emmett. 1988. BN railroad chief lets his fingers do the talking. Seattle Times, Apr. 3, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Watson, Emmett. 1988. Here you go, fat cats: an envious man's 2 cents' worth. Seattle Times, Apr. 14, 1988. (Burke Gilman Trail).

Watson, Emmett. Burke-Gilman 'horse-trader' finds a fast track to notoriety. Seattle Times, Feb. 11, 1988.

Weaver, Robert Kent. 1982. The politics of state enterprise: railroad nationalization in the United States and Canada. 1982.

Weaver, Robert Kent. 1985. The politics of industrial change: railway policy in North America. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, c1985.

Weimer, Douglas Reid. 1983. Title to land grants of the former Northern Pacific Railroad. American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Aug. 4, 1983. 28 p. Examines the Northern Pacific land grants and conflicting claims in Sanders County, Montana, and "examines and evaluates existing federal and state legilsation and proposals for additional federal legislation... [T]he enactment of one piece of legislation, whether on the federal or the state level, will not easily resolve the complicated series of problems confrontng Sanders County, and possibly other areas of the country. It is possible that a judicial determination may be necessary to resolve some of the various conflicting issues..." (from the executive summary).

Weiss, Marianne E. 1939. The movement to end the land grants to railroads. Master's thesis, Cornell University.

Werner, Larry. 1991. 3 mayors back commuter railway. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 3, 1991. (Tacoma, Kent, and Auburn, Washington mayors and Senator Brock Adams push for $25 of $100 million estimated cost of light rail system).

West Coast Lumberman, April 1893, p.16. (Steen, 1969, p.119, cites it as stating that "about a year ago Peter Musser, Frederick Weyerhouser [sic] and others bought a tract of fine timber land in Oregon, containing 850,000 acres", with a land company incorporated in Iowa and capitalized at $2 million).

Westneat, Danny. 1990. County doubts depth of toxic waste probe. Valley Daily News (Auburn, WA), April 1, 1990. (Chempro and drum dump in abandoned Landsburg coal mine).

Weyerhaeuser: a family empire. Forest Watch, May 1986, p.6-11. (Originally printed in the Union Register of the Lumber, Production, and Industrial Workers Union. Gives Weyerhaeuser history and family tree, shows interlocking directors of Boise Cascade, Potlatch, and other corporations, and shows family and associates shareholdings).

Wheeler, Olin Dunbar. 1901. The history of a trade-mark, by Olin D. Wheeler. St. Paul, Minn.: Northern Pacific Railway, 1901. [UW Special Collections Stacks 979.5 N81s; bound with other titles]. (See also Northern Pacific's 1933 "The Story of the Monad").

Wheeler, Olin Dunbar. 1905. The Lewis & Clark exposition, Portland, Oregon, June 1 to October 15, 1905. St. Paul, Northern Pacific railway [1905?].

Wheeler, Olin Dunbar. 1905. The Lewis & Clark exposition, Portland, Oregon, June 1 to October 15, 1905. St. Paul, Northern Pacific Railway, 1905.

Wheeler, Olin Dunbar. 1906. Eastward through the storied northwest, by Olin D. Wheeler. St. Paul: Northern Pacific Railway Company, [1906].

White, W. Thomas. 1981. A history of railroad workers in the Pacific Northwest, 1883-1934. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington. (White is curator of the J.J. Hill papers in St. Paul).

White, W. Thomas. 1984. Railroad labor protests, 1894-1917. Pacific Northwest Quarterly, January 1984, p.13-21. (A few details on Great Northern and Northern Pacific attempts to infiltrate and counter the IWW and other unions. Says NP "alienated many by its high-handed manner of claiming territory under its land grant," citing his 1981 dissertation. White is curator of the J.J. Hill papers in St. Paul).

White, W. Thomas. 1986. Railroad labor relations in the Great War and after, 1917-1921. Journal of the West 25: 27-35, April 1986.

Whitely, Peyton. 1992. Commuter rail back on CT's agenda. Seattle Times, Dec. 31, 1992, p.B4. (BN lobbies Snohomish County, Washington Community Transit officials as part of a proposed $9 billion publicly-funded transit package).

Whitesmith, Benjamin M. 1931. Henry Villard and the development of Oregon. Master's thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene.

Whittlesey Abstract & Title Guarranty Co. 1891. Statement of title to Northern Pacific addition to Seattle. Seattle [1891].

Wilbur, C.W. 1908. The way of the land transgressor: how Montana was done. Pacific Monthly, Jan. 1908.

Wilcox, Clair. 1941. Competition and monopoly in American industry. TNEC Monograph No. 21. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Wilgus, Horace La Fayette. 1904. The northern securities decision. [Ann Arbor, Mich., 1904].

Wilkeson, Samuel. Wilkeson's notes on Puget Sound: being extracts from notes by Samuel Wilkeson on a reconnoissance of the proposed route of the Northern Pacific Railroad made in the summer of 1869. [s.l.: s.n., l87-?].

Willard, John. Railroad lands in Montana. Montana Railroad Association.

Williams, Ernest W. Jr. The regulation of rail-motor rate competition.

Williams, James M. 1989. Access to the Gallatin National Forest: a case study. Transactions of the 54th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, p.155-158. . (Gallatin has 1.7 million acres of mostly checkerboard ownership, the result of the Northern Pacific railroad land grant. Management issues include wilderness allocation, wildlife (including threatened and endangered species such as bald eagle and grizzly bear), and reasonable public and administrative access. Landowners are increasingly attempting to close or restrict access to national forest areas where the U.S. does not have documented road or trail easements. Mechanisms to obtain access include land ownership adjustments; "proving up" or establishing historic access agreements; reciprocity (using the FLPMA Title V requirement that private/public access be made reciprocal); direct right-of-way acquisition, with condemnation as a last resort; cost-sharing agreements for easements and road development (often used with large intermingled corporate landowners such as Burlington Northern. See also Kwiatkowski, 1989, for the Keystone Center's recommendations for dealing with access issues, and Roederer, 1989, for the process used during the year-long Keystone dialogue on access issues).

Williams, Michael. 1987. Industrial impacts of the forest of the United States 1860-1920. Journal of Forest History 31(3): 108-121.

Williams, Michael. Americans and their forests. Cambridge University Press. (The section on "The last lumber frontier: the Pacific Northwest" includes history of the railroads and timber industry and a summary and graphics from the U.S. Bureau of Corporations, 1913-1914).

Williams, Roger Lea. 1991. The origins of federal support for higher education: George W. Atherton and the land-grant college movement. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.

Wilner, Frank N. 1981. Competitive equity-the freight railroads' stake. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads.

Wilner, Frank N. 1981. History and evolution of railroad and grants. ICC Practitioners' Journal 48(6): 687-699, Sept-Oct. 1981. . (Wilner, an employee of the Association of American Railroads, argued that "both Congress and the federal courts have ruled that the books have been closed on the matter of past railroad land grants." For a rebuttal, see John Creedy's 1983 article in the same journal).

Wilner, Frank N. 1991. The Railway Labor Act & the dilemma of labor relations. Omaha, NE: Simmons-Boardman Books, 1991.

Wilner, Frank N. Railroads and the marketplace. Association of American Railroads? ("Plagued by substandard profits - or no profits at all - many railroads deferred maintenance and delayed capital improvements in anticipation of better days that never arrived").

Windom, William. 1869. The Northern Pacific railway; its effect upon the public credit, the public revenues, and the public debt. Speech of Hon. William Windom .. delivered in the House of representatives, January 5, 1869. Washington, Gibson brothers, printers, 1869.

Winfield, Phyllis. 1990. Chempro agrees to pay for probe at Pier 91 site. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 5, 1990. (EPA concerns over Elliott Bay contamination).

Wing, Warren W. 1983. A northwest rail pictorial / with photographs from the collection of Warren W. Wing. Edmonds, Wash. (P.O. Box 57, Edmonds 98020): Pacific Fast Mail, c1983-1991.

Winkenwerder, Hugo. 1928. Forestry in the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC: The American Tree Association.

Winks, Robin W. 1991. Frederick Billings: a life, Robin W. Winks. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Winks, Robin W. 1991. Frederick Billings: a life. New York: Oxford University Press. 398 p.

Winser, Harry Jacob. 1883. The great Northwest; a guidebook and itinerary for the use of tourists and travellers over the lines of the Northern Pacific railroad, the Oregon railway and navigation company and the Oregon and California railroad .. with map and many illustrations. By Harry J. Winser.. New York, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1883.

Winser, Harry Jacob. 1889. The great Northwest; a guidebook and itinerary for the use of tourists and travelers over the lines of the Northern Pacific railroad, its branches and allied lines. St. Paul, W. C. Riley, 1889.

Winser, Henry Jacob. 1886. The great Northwest; a guide-book and itenerary for the use of tourists and travellers over the lines of the Northern Pacific Railroad, the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company and the Oregon and California Railroad. St. Paul, Riley Brothers, 1886.

Winser, Henry Jacob. 1888. The great Northwest; a guidebook and itinerary for the use of tourists and travelers over the lines of the Northern Pacific railroad, the Oregon railway and navigation company and the Oregon and California railroad. Containing descriptions of states, territories, cities, towns and places along the routes of these allied systems of transporation. St. Paul, Northern news co., 1888.

Winser. Guide to the Northern Pacific and its allied lines.

Wood, Charles and Dorothy Wood. 1974. Spokane, Portland & Seattle Ry. Seattle: Superior Publishing.

Wood, Charles Raymond. 1967. Lines West: Great Northern. Burbank CA: Superior Publ. 192 p. (Pictorial history).

Wood, Charles Raymond. 1968. The Northern Pacific, main street of the Northwest; a pictorial history, by Charles R. Wood. Seattle, Superior Pub. Co. [c1968].

Wood, Charles Raymond. 1968. The Northern Pacific, main street of the Northwest. Seattle: Superior. NY: Bonanza Books.

Wood, Donald F. and James C. Johnson. 1983. Contemporary transportation. 2nd edition. Tulsa, OK: PennWell Publishing Co. 746 p. (Chapter 5 is on railroads; other chapters include material on government regulation, pipelines, and economics).

Wood, Horace Gay. 1885. A treatise on the law of railroads. By H. G. Wood. Boston, C. C. Soule, 1885.

Wood, Struthers & Co. 1924. Great Northern Railway Company, Northern Pacific Railway Company; a review of their operations in the period 1916-1923 and a discussion of some of their most difficult problems, with comments on current conditions by Mr. Ralph Budd [and] Mr. Howard Elliott. New York, Wood, Struthers [c1924].

Woodruff, Steve. 1985. Report warns of depletion of private timber. Missoulian, Dec 10 1985. Reprinted in Transitions, Dec. 1991, p.16-17. (Forest Service "Montana Timber" report confirms private lands are being cut faster than they are growing; says public forests unlikely to make up the difference. See Green, 1985).

Wrone, David R. 1989. Economic impact of the 1837 and 1842 Chippewa treaties. Unpublished paper. Stevens Point: University of Wisconsin, Dept. of History. (Calculates natural resources gained from Chippewa lands, including 100 billion board feet of timber, 150 billion tons of iron ore, 13 billion tons of copper, and 19 million acres of land).

Wunderlich, G. 1978. Facts about U.S. landownership. Agric. Info. Bull, No. 22. Washington, DC: USDA Economics, Statistics, and Cooperative Service.

Yakima County Economic Development Association. 1991. (Study of the State purchase of BN's Stampede Pass line; see Geranios, Feb. 22, 1991).

Yard, R.S. 1928. Our Federal Lands. New York.

Yenne, Bill. The history of the Burlington Northern. NY: Bonanza Books. 128 p. (Uncritical to the point of adoring: "Watershed protection and environmental preservation and enhancement were at the top of the list of [BN] management objectives." But useful for basic history, especially mergers and acquisitions and the routes of the many pre-BN railroads).

Yonce, Frederick J. 1969. Public land disposal in Washington. Ph.D. dissertation. Seattle: University of Washington. [UW].

Yonce, Frederick J. 1978. Lumbering and the public timberlands in Washington: the era of disposal. Journal of Forest History 22(1): 4-17, January 1978.

Yoshikawa-Cogley, Linda. 1990. Board hears both sides on Issaquah annexation. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 16, 1990. (Glacier Park and Grand Ridge).

Yoshikawa-Cogley, Linda. 1990. Issaquah land gets nod, but... Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 23, 1990. (Glacier Park and Grand Ridge).